"Találkoztál már a lányokkal?"
Translation:Have you already met the girls?
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It's -val "with".
You see it as -val after vowels; after consonants, it assimilates its first consonant to the last consonant of the noun, thus lányok + -val > lányok + -kal > lányokkal.
(And in the singular you would get lány + -val > lány + -nyal > lánynyal > lánnyal with nny as a simplification of nyny.)
I certainly am not a translation expert, but North American English has a different meaning for "already". Already refers to something that is complete, done, finished. Literally "all ready", "all prepared". "Already" comes from the old Scandanavian word "allerede". Common English usage would be something like, "Did you finish the test already?", or "is the bread done already?", or "Did you meet the girls already?" (have you done it?). In most cases "yet" and "already" are interchangeable.
Well, now that you speak Hungarian, maybe it's time...
I guess both "yet" and "probably" could be accepted. Am I correct in sensing that "already" has the expectation that the answer will probably be yes?
To answer my own question... my "bible" says that a question with "yet" is an open question - asking for information, while a question with "already" has an expectation of confirmation.
In that sense, "yet" is the better choice here. There are other ways to express the assumption that you have already met the girls.
Well, I wish (not about meeting the girls, but speaking Hungarian). OK, I don't own a bible, and I am not English native speaker, this may explain why I did not make the difference between already and yet. Then, how do they translate "have you met the girls already""? in your bible.
Well, I can only recommend this amazing book, makes me look so smart. :)
Practical English Usage - by Michael Swan
So, I don't think there is that kind of differentiation in Hungarian as there is between "yet" and "already" in English. That is why I said both could be accepted. But it does stand closer to the "yet" version.
So, if I think that you have already met the girls, I would ask/say something like this:
"Gondolom, találkoztál már a lányokkal(?)"
"Gondolom" means "I think".
This is a statement that sounds like a question.
And there is a very useful word: "ugye". Originally comes from "úgy-e", which literally means something like "whether it is so". But you can't make an exact translation to English because it can cover many situations. It can cover all of those ", isn't it?" / ", correct?" / ", right?" structures at the end of English questions:
"We are friends, aren't we?" - "(Mi) barátok vagyunk, ugye?"
"You have already met the girls, haven't you?" - "Találkoztál már a lányokkal, ugye?"
You can also place it at the front of the sentence:
"Ugye, mi jó barátok vagyunk?"
There are several other options to use similarly. Here are a few:
"Igaz" - true:
- "Barátok vagyunk, igaz?"
"Nem igaz" - not true:
- "Barátok vagyunk, nem igaz?"
"Nemde" - something like "not so"
- "Barátok vagyunk, nemde?"
These all pretty much mean the same thing. But I'm sure there are small differences in usage. These ones above are usually placed at the end of the sentence. "Ugye" can be put more freely at the beginning, sometimes even the middle of a sentence.
So, these can be combined with "gondolom". Oh, and you can even say "feltételezem" - "I suppose/assume".
So, maybe I would say something like this:
"Gondolom, találkoztál már a lányokkal, igaz?"
"I think you have already met the girls, correct?"
You can play around with the variations. You can't go terribly wrong.
The accusative form would be "lányokat", but in this case, it's more like "meeting WITH someone" and that is done in hungarian with the "-val/-vel" addition - with one extra twist, the initial v gets assimilated into the last consonant (plus observing vowel harmony) so it becomes -kal.
Strictly technically, you could use the definite conjugation, but it does not make sense because, in Hungarian, you meet with someone, which precludes them being a direct object of the verb.
The Hungarian "találkozik" is a reflexive verb, which is difficult to demonstrate in English, but it is logically like "to involve one's self in a meeting with someone". So, it is never expressed using the definite conjugation which would require the other person to be a direct object of the verb.