Ok, so "isn't shul Yiddish, not English?" If I'm translating into English, shouldn't the translation be in English (even understanding that we borrow words from other languages and that "synagogue" is what, Greek?)? In certain English-speaking populations, I understand it's common to use Yiddish, but my guess is that "synagogue" would be more widely understood by non-Jews and that "shul" would not be used by non-Ashkenazi/non-Yiddish speaking populations.
Shul is Jewish-English (Borrowed from Yiddish and used by many Jews in the United States). Shul is my normal word for that building.
Here's an example of normal Jewish-English that I asked my Rabbi last month: "Rabbi, is it a mitzvah to daven maariv on Erev Pesach?"
(Note that this is actually how Jewish languages start to form and diverge from standard languages.)
And you're right. Synagogue is more widely known by non-Jews. Most non-Jews also say Sabbath instead of Shabbat.
More examples: I say kippah (the non-borrowed english term is skull cap, which I would never say).
I say menorah (the non-borrowed term is candelabra, which sounds totally wrong to me).
I never say: prayer shawl, phylacteries, or pentacost (the non-Jewish way of referring to Shavu'ot).
I think that when כמה gets a prefix the first letter changes to its 'soft version', so you have the letter 'chaf', instead of 'kaf'. (btw I think that happens with all/a lot of words that start with a letter that has a soft version: like 'p' and 'f', and 'b' and 'v'). It's related to the rule that the beginning of a word never starts with a soft version, e.g you don't find an intrinsic hebrew word starting with 'f'.
I could not guess what word they meant from audio until I heard it, and I lived in Israel and spoke hebrew for a couple years, including taking college courses in hebrew (like psychology and discrete mathematics).
It's possible I just never noticed and perpetually made a mistake, in theory, but that seems unlikely. I think this is a 'hyper correction', something for grammar nerd prescriptionists, but that people don't speak this way. 'כמה' is just always pronounced 'כמה', even if prefixed, I think. It sounds and feels very wrong otherwise to me.
https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/the-falash-mura It's a name.
Or on the (ugh Wikipedia) Hebrew Wikipedia page @ https://he.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ביתא_ישראל
"הכינוי פֶלַאשַה (רבים: "פלאשים"), שמשמעו בגעז נוודים, גולים, נטבע לראשונה בצוו שהוציא הקיסר יסחק, לפיו מי שלא יתנצר יישאר נווד וחסר קרקע: "מי אשר יטבל לדת הנוצרית יוכל לרשת את נחלת אבותיו, אחרת עליו להיות פלאסי"; "מאז נקראו בית ישראל פלאשוץ' (גולים)", נכתב על גב אחת מכתבי היד של הצו. בתקופת התסיסה הדתית באתיופיה, המאה ה-15 עד ה-17, ציין הכינוי את עובדת היותם של ביתא ישראל יריביה האידאולוגיים והצבאיים של הקיסרות. יש הרואים בשם פלשה כינוי גנאי, אף שהוא נמצא בשימוש במקורות יהודיים במאה ה-16 ובספרות המחקרית המודרנית."
Someone mentioned this in a prior discussion. It's the construct state. It's also in the tips and notes. (I actually don't think the tips and notes is very explanatory), but necessary. Here's the section:
The most used (irregular) nismach is the word ת יָ ב") ּhouse"). However, when בית is a part of a smikhut, its nikkud is changed and the nismach becomes ית ב .ּAgain, let's illustrate this through an example: (bayitּ (בָ י ת - house A (sefer (סֶ פֶר - book A (sefer beytּ (ב ית סֶ פֶ ר - school A (bayitּ (בָ י ת - house A Sick (people) - חולים) cholim) A hospital - חולים ית ב) ּbeyt cholim)
I'll find another example and post that if I can..
Ok, from Modern Hebrew Grammar by Lewis Glinnert:
"Construct phrases are two Hebrew words side by side (usually two nouns and usually a set phrase), much like English soccer game, apple tree. The first noun in the Hebrew is called ‘the construct noun’ and often displays a special construct ending."
The construct: set phrases To make two nouns into a set phrase of the type ‘soccer game’, Hebrew places them side by side, but in the opposite order to English: the noun that does the qualifying comes last, just as an adjective follows its noun. The whole thing is called a construct phrase or smichut, and the first noun is called the construct noun. ...... A construct phrase is often more than just a matter of putting two nouns together. The first noun frequently requires a special ‘construct ending’ and / or an internal change of vowel.
(Unfortunately the Hebrew pastes badly in here as you can see from my attempt above, you can however see the full page with the Hebrew examples at Google books: (just search the phrase in the book, construct phrase) https://books.google.com/books?id=U92GsgPDRUMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:%22Lewis+Glinert%22&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj52MTnivLgAhUQhOAKHWjzCvgQ6AEIMjAC#v=onepage&q&f=false