Is there a rule for how to change the endings. Like אבא turns to אבי and q a few more
the TS;DR version is:
1st person singular is אני therfore the suffix shell be י for a single thing and יי for several things.
1st person plural is אנו therfore the suffix shell be נו for a single thing and ינו for several things.
2nd person singular masc is אתה therfore the suffix shell be ךfor a single thing and יך for several things.
2nd person plutal masc is אתם therfore the suffix shell be כם for a single thing and יך for several things.
2nd person singular fem is את therfore the suffix shell be ך for a single thing and ייך for several things.
2nd person plural fem is אתן therfore the suffix shell be כן for a single thing and יכן for several things.
3rd person singular masc is הוא therfore the suffix shell be ו for a single thing and יו for several things.
3rd person plural masc is הם therfore the suffix shell be ם for a single thing and יהם for several things.
3rd person singular fen is היא therfore the suffix shell be ה for a single thing and יהן for several things.
note this: when writing without niqqud, we're using mater lectionisa to represent the different pronunciation (mainly use ו (represents "o" or "u") and י (represents "i", "y") and יי (represents "aiy" or "eiy")). the sylabole "eiy" is very common with 2nd and 3rd prsons. when using niqqud we write it with a single י, but as we want to make it clirafy that it is a fem and not masc, we're using יי when we write without niqqus. I'll write with niqqud but as if it's without niqqud (more yuds)
single something in my possesion gets י as a suffix - אבא שלי becomes אבי [a-vi] and my room - החדר שלי - becomes חדרי [khad-ri], my blanket (השמיכה שלי) becomes שְׂמִיכָתִי [smi-kha-ti] etc.
several things in my possesion gets יי as a suffix; my books (הספרים שלי) becomes ספריי [sfa-raiy], my ancestors (האבות שלי) are אבותיי [a'vo-taiy] and my rooms (החדרים שלי) becomes חדריי [kha-da-raiy] etc.
something in plural 1st person possesion gets נו (singular) or ינו (plutal). our father (אבא שֶׁלָּנוּ) becommes אָבִינוּ [avi-nu], our ancestors (האבות שֶׁלָּנוּ) becomes אָבוֹתֵינוּ [avo-teiy-nu]. our room (החדר שֶׁלָּנוּ) becomes חָדְרְנוּ [khad-re-nu], our rooms (החדרים שֶׁלָּנוּ) becomes חַדְרֵינוּ [kha-da-reiy-nu]. our blanket (השמיכה שֶׁלָּנוּ) becomes שְׂמִיכָתֵנוּ [smi-kha-te-nu], our blankets (השמיכות שֶׁלָּנוּ) becomes שְׂמִיכוֹתֵינוּ [smi-kho-teiy-nu].
a single something in singular 2nd person possesion gets ך (for masc subject) or as a תך (for fem subject) suffix (for masc it is "kha" or "t-kha" and for fem it is "e'kh" or "te'-kh"): masc-your father (אבא שֶׁלְּךָ) becomes אָבִיךָ [a-vi-kha], fem-your father (אבא שֶׁלָּךְ) becomes אָבִיךְ [a-vikh]. masc-your room (החדר שֶׁלְּךָ) becomes חַדְרֵךָ [khad-re-kha], and fem-your room (החדר שֶׁלָּךְ) becomes חַדְרֵךְ [khad-rekh], masc-your blanket (השמיכה שֶׁלְּךָ) becomes שְׂמִיכַתְךָ [smi-khat-kha] and fem-your blanket (השמיכה שֶׁלָּךְ) becomes שְׂמִיכַתֵךְ [smi-kha-tekh].
several things in singular 2nd person possesion gets יך (for masc subjects) or תיך (for fem subjects) suffix (for masc it is "eiy-kha" or "teiy-kha" and for fem it is "aiy-kh" or "taiy-kh"): masc-your ancestors (האבות שֶׁלְּךָ) becomes אָבוֹתֶיךְ [a-vo-teh-kha, the "teh" is something between "teh" and "teiy", that is going to be the same in the following], fem-your ancestors (האבות שֶׁלָּךְ) becomes אָבוֹתַייךְ [a-vo-ta-iykh]. masc-your blankets (השמיכות שֶׁלְּךָ) becomes שְׂמִיכוֹתֶיךָ [smi-kho-teh-kha], fem-your blankets (השמיכות שֶׁלָּךְ) becomes שְׂמִיכוֹתָייךְ [smi-kho-ta-iykh].
a single something in plural 2nd person possesion gets כם (masc person) and כן (fem person): masc-their father (אבא שֶלָכֶם) becomes אָבִיכֶם [a-vi-khem], fem-their father (אבא שֶלָכֶן) becomes אָבִיכֶן [a-vi-khen], masc-their room (החדר שֶלָכֶם) becomes חַדְרְכֶם [khad-re-khem], fem-their room (החדר שֶלָכֶן) becomes חַדְרְכֶן [khad-re-khen], masc-their blankets (השמיכה שֶלָכֶם) becomes שְׂמִיכָתְכֶם [smi-khat-khem], fem-their blankets (השמיכה שֶלָכֶן) becomes שְׂמִיכָתְכֶן [smi-khat-khen].
several things in plurar 2nd person possesion gets יכם (masc person) and יכן (fem person) suffix: masc-their fathers (האבות שֶלָכֶם) becomes אָבוֹתֵיכֶם [a-vo-teh-khem], fem-their fathers (האבות שֶלָכֶן) becomes אָבוֹתֵיכֶן [a-vo-teiy-khen] (in these case, their fathers is the same as their ancestors). masc-their rooms (החדרים שֶלָכֶם) becomes חַדְרֵיכֶם [khad-reh-khem], fem-their rooms (החדרים שֶלָכֶן) becomes חַדְרֵיכֶן [khad-reiy-khen]. masc-their blankets (השמיכות שֶלָכֶם) becomes שְׂמִיכוֹתֵיכֶם [smi-kho-teh-khem], fem-their blankets (השמיכות שֶלָכֶן) becomes שְׂמִיכוֹתֵיכֶן [smi-kho-teiy-khen],
a single something in singular 3rd masc-person possesion gets ו or תו suffix and in several exceptions יו suffix. his father (אבא שֶׁלּוֹ) becommes אָבִיוֹ [a-viv], his mother (אמא שֶׁלּוֹ) becomes אִמּוֹ [i'-mo], his blanket (השמיכה שֶׁלּוֹ) becomes שְׂמִיכָתוֹ [smi-kha-to].
a single something in singular 3rd fem-person possesion gets ה or תה suffix and in several. her father (אבא שֶׁלּה) becommes אָבִיה [a-vi-ha], her mother (אמא שֶׁלּה) becomes אִמּה [i'-ma], her blanket (השמיכה שֶׁלּה) becomes שְׂמִיכָתה [smi-kha-ta].
several things in singular 3rd person possesion gets יהם (masc person) and יהן (fem person) suffix: masc-their fathers (האבות שֶלָהֶם) becomes אָבוֹתֵיהֶם [a-vo-teh-hem], fem-their fathers (האבות שֶלָהֶן) becomes אָבוֹתֵיהֶן [a-vo-teiy-hen] (in these case, their fathers is the same as their ancestors). masc-their rooms (החדרים שֶלָהֶם) becomes חַדְרֵיהֶם [khad-reh-hem], fem-their rooms (החדרים שֶלָהֶן) becomes חַדְרֵיהֶן [khad-reiy-hen]. masc-their blankets (השמיכות שֶלָהֶם) becomes שְׂמִיכוֹתֵיהֶם [smi-kho-teh-hem], fem-their blankets (השמיכות שֶלָהֶן) becomes שְׂמִיכוֹתֵיהֶן [smi-kho-teiy-hen],
Wow! This is such a detailed explanation! Thank you for taking the time. It is really what I need to help me figure out this section.
the notes don't say anything about changing the stem of the word when you add the suffixes
I've read in other thread that it is not אבא (dad) turning into אבי, but אב (father) turning into אבי.
Although, the question how will be "my daddy" (האבא שלי) still remains.
That is a really smart answer I've never heard before. The answer to your question is that most of the time, it's more formal to use the contraction. Therefore, there is no contraction for an informal word
Aba is actually from Aramaic, commonly used around year 0, even among Hebrew speakers, and adopted by Eliezer in his dictionary. The word here is from "av", which is from original Hebrew, becoming "ab" in the genitive.
How would I say "They are our dads" ? Like - if there are two children and each has his/her dad and they're introducing them to someone?
it would be "הם האבות שלנו" or "אלו האבות שלנו" the goes for moms - "אלו האמהות שלנו" or "הן האמהות שלנו"
I'm not sure if it is completly incorrect to say אבותינו or אמותינו in this case, but it is definitely not used in this context (those words aren't commonly used, but when they are it is in the context of forefathers (אבותינו - a-vo-tey-nu) and foremathers (אמותינו - i-mo-tei-nu))
Interesting that we have here a case where the forms with synthetic and analytic possessives have a different meaning: אֲבוֹתֵ֫ינוּ הָיוּ צַיָּדִים־לַקָּטִים our ancestors were hunter-gatherers, but הָאָבוֹת שֶׁלָּ֫נוּ הָיוּ חֲבֵרִים, נָכוֹן? our fathers were friends, weren't they?