"A repülőgép ezek fölött a városok fölött repül."
Translation:The airplane is flying over these cities.
43 CommentsThis discussion is locked.
It's correct Hungarian, and both are required because that's how Hungarian does it.
(Why does English say "five apples", with a required plural ending on "apples" even though that's redundant given that "five" already says that there is more than one? Because that's just how English does it. Hungarian, on the other hand, doesn't: öt alma.)
To me, "over these cities" implies movement starting on one side of the cities, with its midpoint directly above them, and ending at a point past the cities, while fölött does not have this movement meaning and only indicates that the flying takes place over/above the cities at all times.
Maybe "over" could be used in the "location, not direction" meaning as well, as long as you don't confuse yourself that fölött indicates this "from one side to the other" meaning (as in "he stepped over the dog").
Yes there is...:
"Demonstratives and postpositions
Hungarian has one more complication in store for you. When you combine a demonstrative and a noun like ez a ház ‘this house’ with a postposition like mellett ‘next to‘, the resulting form is like with the case suffixes above:
emellett a ház mellett ‘next to this house’
afölött a kert fölött ‘above that garden’"
Sorry to correct you. But we write them separately in this case.
E mellett a ház mellett ‘next to this house’ A fölött a kert fölött ‘above that garden’
Emellett, amellett, efölött, afölött etc. are adverbs.
I'm too tired to go for a walk. Besides, it's raining. Túl fáradt vagyok, hogy sétálni menjek, emellett még esik is.
Yes sorry I thought I had replied to my own comment but not sure where it's gone now! I saw that there was an explanation, although perhaps it's a design flaw (in my opinion) that these are presented as a kind of optional extra that you have to remember to read, rather than something that's integral to your learning.
I am really sure by now that we are learning wrong Hungarian here. My girlfriend went to gymnasium after primary school and lateron did a bachelors degree and she never used the double fölött in written form either. So far I was really happy with what Ive learned thanks to Duolingo, but this should definitely be changed please.
I studied Hungarian at the Debreceni Nyári Egyetem - and it was used. The teachers there are a mix of gymnasium and university language specialists. One whom I became friendly with said her day job was teaching native Hungarian university students and their formal grammar was in general very poor. So it may be a level higher than needed by beginners or in every day speech - but it is correct.
Thank you for the explanation and for your shared experiences! That explains a lot to me. I dont know what other peoples goals are when learning a language with Duolingo, but mine are definetly not to learn such a high level of grammar, but rather things I can use actively and passively in everyday live. Most of all I want to be able to speak to and understand my girlfriends family. Im a bit disappointed that I am learning a kind of grammar that the 'normal', typical Hungarian speaker does not use, although I can see why one would want to teach correct, proper (and at times also a high level) grammar to us students.
Thank you, Judit. That's helpful. What I meant was that I have no desire to learn structures that ordinary Hungarians don't use- you know the kind of thing that is considered "correct" and yet is never really said- rather like using the incredibly formal, "To whom are you writing?" instead of the far more commonplace, "Who (or even Whom) are you writing to?"
The Hungarian course likes some ultra-formal English structures- such as the fronting of the English sentence with the preposition, and often rejects the more normal use of it at the end of the sentence- all nice and textbook, but a bit weird in everyday conversation.
My relationships with Hungarians have been, and are likely to be, pretty informal ones, and in many years alongside Hungarians I have never come across the double fölött above, and so, given the slant towards very formal English, I wondered if this bit of Hungarian was formal, too: something taught but never normally used in ordinary life.
If it's something good for everyday conversation, then I want to learn it, complicated or not; but if not, then it's not something I want to devote oodles of my time to :)
Later lessons build on this though. Ezek will become ezeknél, ezekbõl, ezektõl, etc.
Fölött has fölé, fölül.....
That's further down, though.
What you need to know first is:
A városok fölött. - above the city.
E fölött a város fölött. - above this city.
Ezek fölött a városok fölött. - above these cities.
The fölött would also need to go after the article when specifying a selection or a group. It's a Hungarian grammar rule that kind of stresses that these cities are the target or what you are saying, and it also surrounds the noun target.
DL is a free resource. There are good teachers and courses out there (another heads up for the Debrecen Summer School - but it is not cheap let alone free).
You can read the tips and sentence discussions or ask specific questions (I have not idea what you mean by "I dont understand anything").
Another cheap alternative is to buy a grammar book - but first you need to know what you don't know.