It's trivial and unimportant, but who comes up with the menus for this site ? I just want to know who to avoid.
The soft mutation of ces i to ges i indicates that it is a question, together with the question mark and the intonation.
The problem here is that the mutated form ges i is also often used in the colloquial language for the positive statement as well, so we have to fall back on the intonation and the context to let us know whether it is a statement or a question. In some dialects, the ges i form is also sometimes used for negatives, but there we can rely on a ddim to show that it is a negative.
In the formal register of the language things are more obvious in some ways, because the pre-verbal particles that cause these various mutations are still used (*).
(*) For the curious... The pre-verbal particles used in the more formal registers of Welsh are:
- Fe/Mi (+ soft mutation) in front of a positive verb - the mutation is sometimes kept in a few verbs in the colloquial register (the particles are still sometimes used in some dialects).
- A (+ soft mutation) in front of a non-empatic question - the mutation is kept in the colloquial language.
- Ai (no mutation) in front of an emphatic question (may sometimes be used in the colloquial language, too).
- Ni (+ mixed mutation) in front of a negative verb - the mutation is kept in the colloquial language.
It is the last two mutations which are carried over into the colloquial language, and sometimes the use of the soft mutation of a few common positive short-form verbs, especially cael (as used on this course) and in some dialects gwneud (not done on this course).
The 'mixed mutation' is aspirate mutation of p-, t-, c- and soft mutation of b-, d-, g-, m-, ll-, rh-.
(This course does not use or accept the pre-verbal particles a or ni, and only occasionally uses mi, because it does not use or accept answers in the formal register of the language.)