Why not "care for" instead of "take care of"? I care for my nephew on tuesdays, I am caring for three kittens this weekend, etc...
Seems okay (although your examples would be rather translated using "opiekować się"), but I have just one small question: does "Care for" really sound okay as a beginning of an imperative sentence? If so, then I'm of course gonna add it. I've just never encountered it in such a context before.
Not so much about your question, more of an aside. I (BrE) tend to use "look after" in both cases. I often advise my Polish students to do the same as there's a tendency among learners to combine two different expressions, "take care of" and "care about" and come up with "take care about".
"Care for the environment," is not wrong, but it sounds strange to command someone, "Care for [something]!" It would sound better to say something like, "You should care for the environment," which would translate differently in Polish. (Powinnasz dbać...?) Same with "Care about..." as a command.
"Take care of the environment," is a perfectly normal imperative and is still the best translation.
Care for the environment/care about the environment sound natural in English as an instruction/command from one person to another.
Added "care for", but I was told that "care about" would change the meaning in fact.
Yes, "caring about," is mentally/emotionally, something or someone that means something to you. "Caring for" is action taken on something or someone for its betterment or improvement or at the very least protection.
What about "care ABOUT the environment"? That makes sense too, but marked as wrong?
how come on the sentence "Rozmawiamy o środowisku." you can translate "we talk about environment" but here you must put "THE environment"
English nouns usually require an article or noun determiner. There are exceptions. But, "we talk about environment" is a vague sentence because "the environment" has a different meaning than "our environment," "an environment," "his environment," etc.