"The Turkish workers run over to the boss and shout."
Translation:A török munkások odafutnak a főnökhöz és kiabálnak.
There is a little problem with "a főnökhöz odafutnak". "Oda" is something like "to there", and it is preceded by "to the boss". So it is "to the boss to there..."., which is a little bit too much, both of them on one side of the verb root. So, in this case, let's drop the preverb "oda":
"A török munkások a főnökhöz futnak és kiabálnak". - we are good!
Now that is a bit different because it puts their selected target in focus and in contrast. Instead of running somewhere else, they run to the boss.
Why not "átfutnak" instead of "odafutnak"? Is it because there is no actual thing to get across?
Yes, "átfutnak" would imply "across" something. Across the street, from one building/office/etc. to another, and so on.
Why is it wrong to split 'futnak oda' like this? "A török munkások futnak oda a főnökhöz és kiabálnak."
athough your sentence is grammatically correct, in this case it means "(instead of anyone else, maybe more workers are on site, germans, chinese etc,) they (the turkish guys) are running to the boss". The order of the words can slightly/completely change the meaning, depending on which part you are emphasising