It's not that it's fast it's that we don't know the language well enough. It's a human problem everyone gets when hearing a language they're not advanced in. They measured multiple languages globally and found the average rate similar (even in sign languages) but that the perception of the speed was different if you weren't native or advanced.) I'm summarising but that's basically it. Except for actual speed talkers (I do talk very fast, I think Ben Shapiro & John moschiotta (micro machines guy) are the perfect speed... But we know speak faster than normal, and know even natives can't understand us...
Hebrew like all Semitic languages has it where all verbs have 3 (sometimes 4) consonants and then the vowels tell you other information like gender, number etc.
Eat = אוכל א.כ.ל Drink = שותה ש.ת.ה Study = לומד ל.מ.ד
Eventually, Hebrew ran out of combinations. So they developed a system of 7 types where they can use the same three consonants to mean similar but distinct things.
For anyone even half interested in languages, I enthusiastically recommend "The Unfolding of Languages" by Guy Deutscher. He puts forward a very convincing theory about the mechanisms in languages' evolution, and gives a specific theory about the Semitic languages verb forms.
They're types of binyanim. In the tips¬es of lesson "Present 1" there's a long explanation about them in general, and in particular about Pa'al. I understand this sentence is included in that lesson, so you should be able to read them. If not you can check this link -
Pretty much. יודע is to know a fact or some information, or to know how to do something; מכיר is to be familiar with something/someone, not necessarily sentient beings.
I know this story = אני מכיר את הסיפור הזה
I know what this story is about = אני יודע על מה הסיפור הזה
The root נכר has two opposite meanings - נכר means foreign lands, נוכרי means a stranger or a foreigner, while להכיר is to know someone/something. I don't know and couldn't find a satisfying explanation online for this, but if I'd have to guess I'd say they come from the same origin.
I'm learning too but I wouldn't think they're comparable. Because you can use know as: to know of. Like do you know the mayor? Vs have you met the mayor (as in physically meeting the person, not a phone call.. This was easier when you had to be introduced!) However, I guess it depends on if Hebrew has different forms of how they use "know" colloquially. I know one is biblically! (Not this one). Does it mean solely have the knowledge they exist, or do you have to have "MET" them?
"Have you met my cat" = פגשת את התחול שלי? (Or נפגשת עם החתול שלי?)
I think להכיר behaves pretty much like to know (an individual) in English. It doesn't necessarily mean you met her. It can be someone famous that you recognize; and it can be deeper than just that you met him, it can be used to stress that you're well-familiar with him.