"The new soup is not tasty."
Translation:Nowa zupa nie jest smaczna.
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Dzień dobry, pańowie: The questions I will ask after the following unnecessarily verbose preamble almost certainly has been answered elsewhere, likely in a previous lesson. However, I almost always use the Duolingo app on my phone or iPad, and unfortunately, the app does not permit users to access tips or to participate in discussions in the Polish course (yet...). My knowledge of Russian is helpful, but it only gets me so far, as there are of course many significant differences. So: Why is "Nowa zupa nie jest smaczną" incorrect? Aren't nouns and adjectives following the verb 'być' supposed to be in the instrumental case? Also: what's up with 'to' vs. 'być'? Under which circumstances may 'to' replace 'być' as a translation of 'to be', and are the nouns/adjectives following 'to' always in the nominative? Is 'to' less formal/more colloquial than 'być'? Finally: Does 'być' always trump accusative and genitive when it comes to modifying the subsequent nouns/adjectives? If so, does this apply to the instrumental case in general, or only in this instance (or perhaps in a few other generally anomalous situations)? Dziękuję! Przepraszam if my questions are foolish.
It's "panowie", but that means "gentlemen", so it doesn't address everyone ;)
No, if after "być" you just have a standalone adjective, it takes Nominative (Zupa jest smaczna). If after "być" you have a noun phrase, then it takes Instrumental (a nonsensical sentence like "This soup is tasty soup" would be "Ta zupa jest smaczną zupą").
It's a very wide topic, but I believe this post should answer it: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/16373167 - but basically they're interchangeable if you have noun phrases on both sides, if on one side you have something else, then the 'to' construction is not an option. And I believe I'd say that the 'być' construction is more elegant.
I'm afraid I don't follow, could you specify your 'finally' question and give some example? In general, different verbs or different constructions simply need different cases.
Firstly, "the" doesn't really have a translation into Polish. We accept translating it to forms of "ten", but that's more like an interpretation (saying that "the soup" means basically the same as "this soup") rather than a translation.
Secondly, the right form for the masculine noun "zupa" is "ta". We'd accept "ta zupa" here. "ten" is masculine.