"אני הולך בדרך המרכזית."
Translation:I am walking on the main road.
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If you say “along the main road”, usually it means on the main road, but “along” also has the meaning of alongside but not on, such as in the sentence
“We'll need to walk along every inch of the fence to find the spot where the sheep are getting through.”
In order for translated sentences to be acceptable on Duolingo, it’s best to stick with the most common meaning, because the synonym which you think has the exact same meaning might not always have the exact same meaning.
The word רחוב is for a wide way (suitable for vehicles) in a city or a town. דרך is any kind of way; at least by legal terms it also applies to city streets, but usually for city streets people would say רחוב, so דרך is mostly used for roads outside cities (including in villages), and to foot paths (in or or out of cities).
To confuse you once, while street names in Israel are most commonly with רחוב (e.g. רחוב רחל), many streets are named with דרך, e.g. דרך שלמה. But if they are referred to by what they are rather than by name, they are still all רחוב.
To confuse you twice, recently many villages started to give names to their roads, apparently to help navigation at the digital age; and these names are most commonly with רחוב. Again, I don't think anyone will refer to them as רחוב except when calling their name.