As a catholic, I agree. "Temple" refers to the Jewish temples in the Bible, the pagan temples, or the protestant temples, but never a catholic would refer to his prayer place as a "temple". (at least in English) They need it to make the disctinction between protestant and catholic for instance.
In the past, they did. At Solomon's time for instance. Maybe the places are not temples anymore because the real Temple, the Solomon's Temple doesn't exist anymore at this time.
For Protestants, I don't know where you live, but they do have temples in Europe.
For instance this protestant temple, in France: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beauvoisin,_Gard#/media/File:BoisvoisinTemple.JPG
They had templeS. Not only one. How they could have only one? Read the Bible. Synagogue is a more recent term. It comes from the Greek. Synagogue: this word wasn't known before the Babylonian exile. They had temples, and they still have (reformed synanogues). A catholic church is always a church, but some jewish prayer places are called Temples, even if most of them are called synagogues. Make some searches, about "Reform synagogues", you will see.
I'm not sure Hindus and Buddhists would thank you for calling them 'pagans', nor would any Protestant church thank you for describing it as a 'temple' in English. I'm very surprised if that is acceptable in French. What we do have is the use of 'temple' in the names of churches within certain nonconformist denominations but I know of who would describe their place of worship as a temple are the Mormons.
Merriem-webster says " a follower of a polystheic religion".
So, hindus, and (theistic) buddhists are pagans.
We can't say they are monotheistic abrahamic religions.
But I don't know where you saw I was thinking of that religion, because I wan't thinking of a particular religion.
There are no Mormons in Europe, or very few. For Protestant temples, it's their names, and it's not deragotary since the names were choosen by Protestants themselves. Temples were named in reference of the Salomon temple, so there's nothing derogatory, it's the opposite... If "temple" is deragotory for you, explain it to the European protestants, and ask them to call the place where they pray with another name. They don't consider it that way.
Temples and churches don't have the same architecture, it's not only a matter of religion. Catholic churches are always churches, because the architecture is heavily codified, they never look like temple.
There is maybe an exception, this one: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Madeleine,_Paris, La Madeleine church, (église de la Madeleine), but it was a masonic temple at the origin.
I've never heard of a protestant temple and in the UK the Roman Catholic place of worship is usually referred to as chapel. We should distinguish between Catholic and Roman Catholic since most protestants would consider themselves catholic in that it means universal or all encompassing.
For Moscow: It's sometimes called "Sacred Louis Frantsuzsky's temple" , In French: Eglise Saint-Louis des Français (Saint-Louis of the French people's church), it's called "church" (церковь) in Russian, not "temple" (храм), it's a wrong English translation, it's a French church in Moscow. And when you see the photo, it's clealy a church, and not a temple (Churches and temples don't have the same form and architecture) http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%89glise_Saint-Louis-des-Fran%C3%A7ais_de_Moscou
St Lyudvik = is a cathedral, not a church or a temple. As the St Louis of the Frenchmen in Moscow, it is dedicated to Saint-Louis. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cathedral_of_St_Louis_(Plovdiv) You can find on this page they refer it to a "Catholic temple" wrongly http://plovdivbg.info/objects/catholic-temple-saint-lyudvik/?lang=en (I guess you can call it "catholic temple" if you're not a catholic, I guess no catholic would think of refering a "cathedral" as a "catholic temple".
For Tiaong, the real name is http://pinoychurches.blogspot.fr/2011/05/saint-john-baptist-parish-church-tiaong.html, and called a temple only by people who don't know the real name I think, or that are not catholic.
This one in Tiaong is a Catholic church, the Saint John the Baptist Church located in Tiaong. Tiaong is a name of a municipal town in south east of Luzon, the northern group of islands in the Philippines. This particular church is one of this town's landmarks so it's pretty popular among tourists. I'm from the Philippines and am Catholic, and never ever a Catholic church in the Philippines referred to as "temple". "Temple" in my native language is templo, and no one in the Philippines ever call a Catholic church a templo, nor temple when we do use English.
Not for catholic. There's only "churches", "chapels" , "cathedrals" and "basilicas" for them. Each one have a different architecture and size or functions; http://mentalfloss.com/article/49148/whats-difference-between-churches-chapels-and-cathedrals and see here too: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architecture_of_cathedrals_and_great_churches.
Nothing about "catholic temples" if you search in the Vatican site or documentation.
Just so you know, Mormons have churches and temples. The church is where regular weekly meetings happen, and anyone can go there. The temple is for extra special ceremonies, weddings and stuff, and you have to be a member in good standing to go.
On a related note, where does "Cathedral" fit into this discussion?
Here are some things I was taught about the English words used in the USA (I am a Christian, and have lived in the USA my whole life.) in most Christian churches. There is a big difference in the words "Catholic church" and "catholic church" in the United States of America (USA). This can be seen in the "Apostles' Creed" (and please don't just Google it and stop with Google telling it, it leaves out most of the central tenet of Christianity, though going to the entry link in Wikipedia does a decent job.). Anyhow..., in English, "catholic" with a little c refers to all Christians which accepts the Bible as Holy, and with what are called the "Old" and "New" Treatments. "Catholic" with a capital "C" refers the Roman Catholic, or Holy Roman Church, whose leader is the Pope who lives in Vatican City,a tiny country in the city of Rome.