"Do you not like school?"
Translation:Nem szereted az iskolát?
The Hungarian sentence could refer to school in general, or a specific school. But typically one would add some words to show that one is talking about a specific school. Like: "Nem szereted ezt az iskolát?" (= "Don't you like this school?"), "Nem szereted az iskoládat?" (= "Don't you like your school"?)
So yeah, we usually use the definite article "a(z)" when talking generally, and we usually use additional words to talk specifically.