Yes, but Polish and Czech are both West Slavic languages. They are closely related. I never realized how mutually intelligible Russian and Polish would be, at least in written form. Hearing Polish is more difficult to understand with Russian ears
Low numbers are very similar in all Slavic languages, but decimal numbers are very different in Russian. Also some days of the week are quite easy to guess like pondělí, úterý, středa or čtvrtek. Although I´ve never studied Russian, I understand a little of it when people speak slowly.
Same with me and Czech, but very little. I do have a Serbian friend, and he messages me in Serbian, and I write in Russian with some Ukrainian words that are more similar to Serbian than Russian is, and we pretty much understand each other, at least the general meaning. I love Slavic languages
poniediel'nik, wtornik, srieda, cietwierg :-) (Russian written in Polish alphabet)
Interesting fact: in Serbian, standard says that Monday and Tuesday are "ponedeljak" (понедељак) and "utorak" (уторак). However, some older people use "ponedeljnik" and "utornik", which are apparently (almost) the same as their Russian counterparts ;)
Even though Czech is from West Slavic group, it shares lot of phonology with Serbo-Croatian. The reason is that these features were developed before Slavic migrations. It's jedan, dva, tri, čet(i)ri, pet, šest, sedam, osam, devet, deset in Serbian :)
RU: odin dwa tri cietyrie piat' szest' sjem' wosjem' diewiat' diesjat'
UA: odyn dwa try czotyry p'jat' śist' sim' wisim' dewiat' desyat'
Is there a way to tell the last two apart, like German uses "zwo" to separate "zwei" and "drei"?
Not that I'm aware of, no. Then again, I never was in military nor operated HAM radio, so maybe there is something that I am just not aware of. ;)