"Zawsze kupowałem jedenaście cytryn."
Translation:I always used to buy eleven lemons.
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Ok, in general you are right, that "would" most of the times is used when talking about the past not the future. But in conditional clauses it can sometimes mean a future action as well. Ex. "I would never do that" can refer to the past and the future. "If I asked you, would you come?" again talking about the future action.
"I always bought eleven lemons" is a perfectly good English sentence, but I think it would primarily be used in a context where you're saying when you always bought the lemons. As in: "I used to go to that store over there, and whenever I did, I always bought eleven lemons."
All that said, I feel much better translating "zawsze kupowałem" as "I always used to buy" than as "I always bought".
"I have always bought" sugeruje, że wciąż kupuję jedenaście cytryn, czego może polskie zdanie nie wyklucza, ale to prędzej byłoby jednak "zawsze kupuję".
"I used to buy" to naprawdę jest dobre tłumaczenie niedokonanego "zawsze kupowałem". Natomiast można dodać dosłowne "zwykłem kupować" do akceptowanych odpowiedzi, czemu nie.
"I have always bought" doesn't require me to have recently changed my habit, although that's one possibility. Since torronoir's sentence doesn't provide further context you would assume my habit is continuing. Thus Jellei is right and it would translate to the Polish present. In regards to "I have always been buying" I don't think "always" works well with the perfect continuous tenses. "always" has too much of a habitual implication.
When "I have always bought" is provided in context it may or may not imply that my habit is continuing. The context is crucial to translate it into Polish correctly. After all the Polish perfective/imperfective dichotomy, which is a lot to do with whether an action is completed or not, doesn't align with the English perfect/non-perfect which is about whether the action is tethered to the time of the verb's tense (but not necessarily completed).