This is not so easy to explain. jön: ~ an obj or pers. coming now in your direction eljön:~ an obj or per. that will come (in the future) to you / for you (and it stops at your place or will take you somewhere). A taxi jön. - A cab comes (in my direction (now)) / it is on its way in my direction. ... A taxi eljön (értem). - A cab will come (to pick me up).
A barátom jön. My friend is coming (in my direction) A barátom eljön (hozzám). My friend will come. (to my place) This is the best explanation that i can find at the moment
A general question about the use of repetition in Hungarian. For example some people repeat 'igen' when you talk to them. 'Igen igen igen ...' Is this considered normal and acceptable? It doesn't cross the cultural divide very well as I find it really odd. Does it implicitly mean, you can stop talking because I totally agree with you and now I want to say something?
I wouldn't say that it means to stop talking. It indicates agreement, and is friendly and encouraging. I agree it took time to get used to it, and I'm uncomfortable doing it myself. This is called "cooperartive overlaping" if you want to learn more. I would say this applies to Hungarians.
I do not understand exactly the question. The word 'jön' = wordroot (dictionary form). /I am Hungarian, sorry./ The 'el' is a preverb. The 'ly' sound = 'j' sound. The 'ly' is a traditional-style spelling. (Lyuk = hole; lyukaszt = punch; kályha = stove) But for example: meNJ, léPJen, éLJek, nyiTJa, lyukaszTJák - here the 'j' letter is a verbal suffix. It is can never be 'ly', only 'j'. In these words, the form of the dictionary is: megy/men(ni); lép(ni), él(ni); nyit(ni); lyukaszt(ani). I hope I could help.