Ænglisc / Old English - Lesson I - Alphabet
[I TAKE NO PERSONAL CREDIT FOR THESE LESSONS]
Ƿesaþ ġe hāl!
Today I hope to introduce you all to the Germanic Language of the Anglo-Saxon of c.500.A.D.-c.1100.A.D. Britain!
Firstly, Old English (OE), has several letters that we do not have in Modern English (MdnE). There are as followed:
Ƿ | ƿ = 'wynn'
Þ | þ = 'thorn' ----- BOTH þ and ð are
Ð | ð = 'eth' ----- completely interchangeable
Æ | æ = 'ash'
Also, it should be noted that several letters have macrons over them, to show that it is a stressed / long vowel - or, in the case of ġ and ċ, a sound change:
ǣ, ē, ȳ, ū, ī, ō, ā, ġ, ċ,
Dangit... I, like, a few days ago had exactly the same idea — to write a Duolingo similar style course of Ænglisc.
Nice that you're doing this.
One of the few additions I'd like to give is that Old English had a few other letters too that were used:
ᵹ (the insular G), and
ſ (the long or sharp S),
but those were relatively quickly threw away in favour of g and ss , respectively.
ᵹ and g are entirely the same in Old English. It was only in Middle English where ᵹ, by then written as ȝ, took on a distinct sound from g (it took on both the old sound of intervocalic back g [ɣ] and post-vocalic h [x, ç] which had merged into a single phoneme /x/.
The evolution of Old English g and h was something like this:
gān [gɑːn] > Middle Eng. goon [goːn] (MdE go [goʊ])
dæġ [dæj] > Middle Eng. day [daj] (MdE day [deɪ])
ġiefan [jɪvɑn] > Middle Eng. yiven [jɪvən] (MdE *yive [jɪv], through Norse borrowing we get "give" [gɪv])
dagas [dɑɣɑs] > Middle Eng. daȝes [daɣəs] (MdE *dawes [dɔːz], regularised into "days" [deɪz])
helpan [helpɑn] > Middle Eng. helpen [hɛlpən] (MdE help [hɛlp])
niht [niçt] > Middle Eng. niȝt [nɪçt] (MdE night [naɪt])
þoht [θoxt] > Middle Eng. thoȝt [θɔxt] (MdE thought [θɔːt]
Don't worry, I, myself am still trying to get used to the inflexion, but practice makes perfect!
This man has videos that will help https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCLnwScGuOxVlaN5aV9in9ag
Indeed! I know but the bear basics myself, and I here direct all those who want extensive lessons to this fine mans youtube channel!: