Originally I had written "The apples are in the oven," which was wrong. I realized that I had given the sentence an extra "the" that wasn't in the original. Would "apples are in the oven" be a valid alternate translation?
Yes, that would be good too.
Almák a sütőben vannak - is this a viable option or is it more convenient for "Apples are in the bowl"?
In oven that is...
Yes. Almák a sütőben vannak = Apples are in the oven