"Nem, a hangyák sem bogarak, hanem rovarok."
Translation:No, ants are not beetles either, but insects.
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In strict biology terms, a bug has a specific type of proboscis, more specifically, a member of order Hemiptera. Sometimes the term true bug is limited further to the order Heteroptera, which has a specific wing structure.
That said, the English term "bug" is used in the colloquial language to refer generically to any insect or creepy-crawly, sometimes including even spiders and worms.
Question for native Hungarian speakers: Does the Hungarian term bogár similarly refer to any creepy-crawly? It appears that, in biology contexts, HU bogarak == LA coleoptera == EN beetles. Meanwhile, EN bugs (in the specific sense) == LA hemiptera == HU poloskák. Is poloska ever used colloquially to refer to any creepy-crawly?
"Is poloska ever used colloquially to refer to any creepy-crawly?"
Nope, poloska is a specific type of insect. There are two types: mezei poloska: shield bug. Also called büdösbogár (smelly bug/stink bug)
ágyi poloska: bedbug
Or, a poloska can be a wiretap (small device someone secretly put in your home to listen to your conversations).
The "worms" that are bugs are not really worms at all but larvae: lisztkukac ( (mealworm), . . . Nobody would ever call an earthworm, say, a bug in English -- a creepy-crawly maybe. An infectious agent such as a bacterium or a virus would be more likely to be called a bug. Maybe a case of worms though, in that sense. Sorry, but it really bugs me . . .
Answer to your question (I have already described this elsewhere, so I copied some of it):
Yes, as you wrote English uses "bug" generically to any insects. We don't have general word for them (like "bug" in English) so we use "bogár" when we speak about them regardless their kind. (And yes, scientific names are: beetle - bogár; insect - rovar).
Egy bogár van a hajadban. - There's a bug in your hair. (I don't know what kind of insect.)
Bogarak köröztek a lámpa körül. - Bugs circled around the lamp. (various winged insects: moths, beetles, mosquitoes etc)
Egy bogár repült a szemembe. - A bug flew into my eye. (I don't know if it was a beetle or not. - Usually not beetles fly into one's eye - otherwise that's very painful.)
And sometimes they are (bogár/bug) appear in common names:
Katicabogár - Ladybug (insects - beetles)
Büdösbogár - Stinkbug - (insects - shield bugs; yes, they're the true bugs)
Svábbogár - Waterbug or Black beetle(!) (insects - cockroaches)
Pincebogár - Sowbug/Woodlouse (crustaceans - They are not even insects!)