Does this mean the dog is getting trained, or is he sitting at a desk listening to a teacher?
It's about getting trained. חינוך is about learning proper behavior, whereas לימוד is about learning material. What we're doing with Duolingo is לימוד, not חינוך.
The more conventional term for dogs is אילוף, but חינוך is also acceptable.
For a dog, I would usually say "trained." I train my dog to stay out of my tulips. I might, possibly, say "that dog trampled my tulips again, I'm going to have to educate him" -- maybe turn the hose on him? For a human being, either one. You can train your children to behave properly, or educate them in proper manners.
And the Hebrew should have been "מאלפים את הכלב" but hitpa'el is the point of this exercise, and I don't think they wanted "הכלב מתאלף" because nobody would say that.
The previous sentence about soldiers and training used התאמן Could that be used to mean dog training? But now I wonder if that should have been translated as 'exercising' in the previous sentence...Anybody?
No. Hit'amen is used for physical training or for practice (not necessarily a sport - you could be practising a musical instrument or chess).
The verb חנכ, in general, and this particular form, in particular, are used in general for education but are more properly used for learning proper behaviour rather than learning new information.
Maybe some native speaker could comment on the previously asked questions under this thread? They all seem very relevant.
How would one differentiate between "the dog is being educated" and "the dog is educated"? מתחנך, it seems, can mean either.
Does חִנוּך has anything in common with antic Hennoch? Or what is the origine of the word? Or where to find ethymilogy of hebrew word? Thanks.
AFAICT this root appears first in Proverbs 22:6:
חֲנֹךְ לַנַּעַר עַל פִּי דַרְכּוֹ גַּם כִּי יַזְקִין לֹא יָסוּר מִמֶּנָּה
Train up a child in the way he should go: and when he is old, he will not depart from it.