"Ca i afal heddiw."

Translation:I will have an apple today.

September 1, 2016

4 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/HaroldWonh

Why can't this mean "Can I have an apple today?"

September 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/ibisc

Because it has not been mutated:

  • Ca i afal - I'll have an apple
  • Ga i afal? - May I have an apple?
  • Cha i ddim afal - I'll not have an apple
September 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/HaroldWonh

I am totally confused by this business of mutation. I thought it was caused by the preceeding letter - so what causes this mutation at the start of a sentence?

September 1, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/ibisc

Initial mutations occur for two reasons:

  • A preceding word causing a change in the sound at the beginning of the following word.
  • To highlight a grammatical relationship.

The first type includes words such as y, un, ei, mor, rhy, am, ar, ar,..... The second includes such things as mutating the object of a conjugated verb, such as prynodd Dewi gar.

In the sentences above, a verb used as a question undergoes soft mutation and a negative verb undergoes mixed mutation - aspirate of p, t, c and soft of b, d, g, m, ll, rh. All of these are caused by words ('pre-verbal particles') which are no longer used in the collquial language (a and ni, if you want to look them up) just as fe/mi are sometimes still used. Their effects remain, however!

Learning the reasons for the initial mutations and using them takes practice - years rather than weeks or months. This course only covers some of them. Pick them up as you go - the 'Hints and Tips' for each section cover them as they first appear.

September 1, 2016
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