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μπ is a dipthong. It is pronounced B (since β is now pronounced V) Greek has several of special rules like this.
ς is just an sigma, same as σ but it only appears at the end of words.
The notes from the ABC lesson discuss this and more. I suggest you review those notes.
Just a little terminology nit-pick, seeing as this is an educational site.
"Diphthong" refers to a sound formed by the combination of two vowels in a single syllable, in which the sound begins as one vowel and moves toward another.
What's under discussion here is a digraph, which is two letters that are read as one sound. The English
sh, for example, are digraphs.
A diphthong in Greek [δίφθογγος] is actually the same thing as in English, two vowel sounds in one syllable pronounced together (e.g. αηδόνι -> αη-δό-νι nightingale, άδειος -> ά-δειος empty). The digraphs are called either [δίψηφα σύμφωνα] double consonants (a combination of two consonants that makes one consonant sound, e.g. μπ -> b) or [δίψηφα φωνήεντα] double vowels (a combination of two vowels that makes one vowel sound, e.g. αι-> e). If you want, you can check it here, it's the official student's book for the 6th grade.
Here is a good explanation on the difference between consonant blends (or consonant clusters), and digraphs: http://blog.maketaketeach.com/teaching-blends-and-digraphs/ -if this should prove helpful.
Yes, μπ makes the "b" or "mb" sound -- I usually say "b" at the beginning of word, "b" or "mb" in the middle of a word, but this varies a bit by region, some saying "b" everywhere.
Similarly, ντ is "d" or "nd", and γκ is "g" or "ŋg".
(Very rarely, μπ ντ γκ may be supposed to be "mp nt ŋk" in foreign words, but many people just pronounce them the Greek way anyway.)
Though saying that τζ sounds like "tz" looks as if it was written by a Greek :) They would be likely to automatically pronounce "tz" like Greek τζ, rather than the way an English speaker would pronounce that combination.
I think it's more accurate to say that τζ sounds like "dz" (as in "adze" or "ads").
It's not like the "tz" in the name "Katz", for example.
No, it doesn't. "Μπαμπάς" only means dad (oh, and it's also the name of a cream-filled cake!). On the other hand, "πατέρας" that means father can be used to refer to a priest. Another word used for a priest is "παπάς" (maybe you confused it with this one?). The distinction between "μπαμπάς" and "πατέρας" is pretty much the same as in English, the first one shows familiarity, it's more intimate, when the second is more formal. Same applies in "μαμά"(mum/mom) and "μητέρα" (mother).
When the Greeks borrowed the phonecian alphabet, they had sounds which had no phonecian letter, and likewise letters which had no sound. So they shuffled them a bit to make it work. Then sounds changes happened in the language (In this case, Beta taking on a V sound). But there were new words that actually had a B sound, so they had to pick some way of representing it. mp is actually a reasonably close approximation to a B sound, so they picked that!