"Are these few examples enough?"
Translation:Elég ez a néhány példa?
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I don't think you can avoid complex grammar when learning any Hungarian. My poor little non-linguistically-inclined brain has been streaming for a year now, but I'm getting there. It certainly appears that you are taking on quite a bit, learning six languages, while I struggle with my native tongue. Good luck!
I'm not sure what you mean by "introducing words" but from what I know, this is a task of the environment anyway, to keep track of words that have appeared earlier and words that you see for the first time. I have barely ever seen picture exercises for a word like "néhány" and not a chance "példa" could be taught using pictures... if you feel you haven't seen it before and Duolingo didn't mark it new by highlighting it - that's the software's fault I'm afraid. (I have bumped into this phenomenon with the Polish course, that's for sure.)
That's how I learned it. If you definitely know how many of something you have (five trees), you don't use the K ending. It is only used if you don't know the quantity - or it includes "some", "many", "few". Yes, I still got this one wrong and it would have been nice to have known (or have been reminded) of this rule prior to the lesson.
By this explanation, I'm still not sure you understand it right. There is no distinction between "definitely known" amount and something that includes "some", "many" or "few".
If you mark the amount explicitly, no matter whether it's "öt" (5), "sok" (many/a lot of), "kevés" (few), "néhány" (some, a few) or "valahány" (some, with more emphasis on the "I don't know how many" aspect) - it will still be followed by singular. The distinction is between any explicit quantification and the lack of it.
You won't see the future tense in this course, but you might come across learned comments indicating that Hungarians use the present tense in many situations in which English speakers use the future tense. If I remember correctly, the future tense is reserved more for planning rather than what you are just about to do. Conversely, if you are feeling lucky, you can try the English future tense for many of these translations.
I wouldn't be surprised if the original creators of this course actually believed that but I think it can give you a bad idea. Even in English, you can use present tense structures to talk about the future. In Hungarian, this might be somewhat more prevalent, partially because of prefixed verbs that can never be progressive and hence they tend to refer to something that's about to happen when used in the present.
Having said that, I can hardly imagine a case where talking about future using future tense would be odd - on the other hand, I can imagine a good number of cases where trying to use present tense for future sounds forced. So I'd say the situation isn't fundamentally different from English and the omission of future tense isn't justified in this course. If I remember correctly, future tense may be added in the next tree.
The problem with that sentence is that you use plural form in "ezek" and the rest is in singular form. So "Ez a kevés példa elég?" would be correct. Although I think that sentence would be acceptable, in this context "few" would be better translated as "néhány", because "kevés" means more along the lines of "too little" and "not enough".
I'm not sure I understand your question. If you translate from English to Hungarian, I can only say there is nothing particularly wrong with "Ez a néhány példa elég" imo but I don't see any particular reason to follow the English word order either. In English, it's a VSO interrogative word order, in Hungarian, it's topic prominency. It's all about whether you want to ask a detail about the subject or put all the stress on the predicate.
I am beginning to see the topic prominency - "word order" as we called it. It's the Tiszta a sza'lloda? / A sza'lloda tiszta issue that became an inside joke with my dad. A book tried to teach me the latter, and he was beside himself. He told me flat out that it was weird to see it with THE first. He taught me adjective first as the topic - cleanliness.