"He bakes the second one."
Translation:A másodikat süti.
Is masodikat second, how does it relate to ketto or is it entirely different please?
második is "second", and másodikat is the accusative form (which you need in this sentence).
Most ordinal numbers are derived from the corresponding cardinal (basic) number just by adding the ordinal suffix -dik with an appropriate linking vowel (and sometimes some minor changes in the stem, like a vowel shortening or dropping out.)
négy - negyedik (four - fourth)
öt - ötödik (five - fifth)
hat - hatodik (six - sixth)
hét - hetedik
nyolc - nyolcadik and so on.
But the first two ordinals are exceptions, and aren't related to their corresponding cardinal numbers in any obvious way:
egy (one) - első (first)
kettő (two) - második (second)
But this is only true for the first two numbers, right?
For example, "the twenty-first" and "the twenty-second" are a huszonegyedik and a huszonkettedik, right, not a huszonelső, a huszonmásodik?
I.e. it is as if they say "the first, the second" but "the thirty-oneth, the fifty-twoth" etc.?
Yes, correct. And that means you have to listen carefully for the difference between (for example) huszonegyedik and huszonnegyedik.
You guys are really good at this, I am impressed!!
On "második", think of how English can say "one and the other". And imagine you could say "otherth" for "second". That is basically what "második" does.
If English would be even closer to German(ic) "other" might also be part of an alternative count system.
Middle English, from Old English ōther; akin to Old High German andar other, Sanskrit antara
But after 1.5 it gets regular anyway. Although there existed also "dritthalb" (two + the third as a half) which meant zweieinhalb , ie 2.5. Rather confusing and good riddance.
But actually other in its Germanic origin is a little bit like masik.