"Αυτός σε ακούει."
Translation:He hears you.
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Dear friends, is not that simply, think a moment about it... what relation would have the 'Genitive' concept with the transtitivness of verbs?
The situation is that the Ancient Greek had also the Dative case, which is the case governed by a ditransitive verb (verbs which requires direct object or Accusative, and also indirect object or Dative). But in the Modern Greek the Dative case fell, so... what happens with the ditransitive verbs? Well, the Dative case was absorbed by Genitive. So, tecnically the pronoun 'σου' is Genitive, but if I say 'εγώ σου γράφω' , it's obvious that ' σου' did not mean 'yours' in that case, but 'for you', which is a Dative function.
So, to say truth the pronoun 'σου' is not just Genitive, because it absorbed the functions of Dative. If were only Genitive its only translation wuold be always 'yours - of you', but if I say 'γεια σου!' or 'σου γράφω', there cannot be translates as 'yours' any more.
Dear friends.... firsta place, congratulations for the excelent page and I apologyse for my English.
In second place... σε in Greek is a preposition, yes, but not only that, with the same orthography is also an acusative form os "you" (direct object). And in this phrase, clearly is NOT a preposition, so there is no point to put this phrase in the section "Learn prepositions". More details in Spanish:
Estimados amigos de Duolingo, en primer lugar felicitaciones por la página. 'Σε' es la preposición 'en/a', pero con la misma ortografía también es el clítico acusativo 'te', o por decirlo de otra forma, la declinación dativa del pronombre 'tú', lo que en castellano llamamos "objeto directo". Y en esta frase, claramente está funcionando como clítico acusativo, no como preposición. En consecuencia, no debe estar en la sección "Aprende las preposiciones".
Primeramente, perdóname si te corrijo un poco las expresiones idiomáticas del inglés que intentaste. “En primer lugar“ no se traduce de esa manera sino Firstly o First of all y “En segundo lugar“ se dice Secondly.
También deseo agradecerte por lo bien que explicaste el significado de la locución griega. Coincido contigo y con algún otro en esta discusión de que no se trata de una preposición. De todas formas, creo que está bien que se encuentre en esta lección para echar luz sobre otras funciones del vocablo.
Nuevamente, ¡gracias y feliz aprendizaje!
Someone before in this same post wrote these phrases:
Αυτός ακούει εμένα - Αυτός με ακούει. Αυτός αγαπάει εσένα - Αυτός σε αγαπάει
They have similar meanings despite being different in structure, and being a native Spanish speaker myself, I couldn't help but notice the similarity with Spanish, so maybe this will be of help to someone who had the same doubts as me.
Αυτός ακούει εμένα in Spanish can be translated literally to "Él escucha a mí", and likewise Αυτός αγαπάει εσένα is "Él ama a ti".
I'm aware that in Spanish these phrases sound strange (at least in México, where I live) but the meaning is practically the same as the other two examples, Αυτός με ακούει ("Él me escucha") and Αυτός σε αγαπάει ("Él te ama"), which sound much more natural to the Spanish speaker.
Use the accusative before a verb that takes a pronoun as a direct object:
Αυτός ακούει εμένα - Αυτός με ακούει.
Αυτός αγαπάει εσένα - Αυτός σε αγαπάει.
Use the genitive before a verb that takes a pronoun as an indirect object:
Αυτός δίνει το δώρο σε εμένα - Αυτός μου δίνει το δώρο.
Αυτός διαβάζει το βιβλίο σε εσένα - Αυτός σου διαβάζει το βιβλίο.
For those interested, this verb in ancient Gk sometimes takes genitive. See http://logeion.uchicago.edu/%E1%BC%80%CE%BA%CE%BF%CF%8D%CF%89 But clearly in modern Gk it takes accusative and σε here is accusative object pronoun (familiar). I like that DL put this sentence in to remind us that context will let us know whether σε is the pronoun or preposition. It would make no sense as a preposition here.
I translated this sentence as: "He hears you." It was marked correct, even though the hover-hint translates it as: "He listens to you." So I hope that helps to answer your question.
But I came here to the comments to see if anyone could explain how to tell the difference when "ακούει" means "hears" vs. "listens." In English, there's an important distinction between those two verbs. Is that not the case in Greek? I'd appreciate it if anyone can help shed some light on this for me. Thank you!
Well. As you've said, this is an issue of the English language. We use the same verb in Greek. :P
I guess you would know which one to use solely based on context.
Άκουσα έναν θόρυβο - I heard a sound.
Άκουσα πως φεύγεις αύριο - Ι heard you're leaving tomorrow.
Ακούω μουσική κάθε βράδυ - I listen to music every night.
Άκου (με), πρέπει να μιλήσουμε - Listen (to me), we need to talk.
So can I say "αυτος σε αρεσει" (excuse missing accents) or "αυτη με τηλεφωνει". But above I saw an example that didn't make sense "Αυτός μου δίνει το δώρο" this sentence makes sense but why is genitive used? "He is giving/gives me the present" but why is accusative not used? Isn't the subject of "he" doing the action of "giving" a noun "the gift" to me? Or am I completely botching this up?
But English does not normally use the Continous tense with stative verbs or verbs of feeling one of which is "hear".
There are many other examples.
The personal pronoun for "you" in Greek, (εσύ) is inflectional. So, σου is the genitive case of "you" and σε is the accusative case of "you".
We use σε and always before a verb as an direct object, and σου (again, before a verb) as an inderect object in a sentence. (The moderator D_.. explains it too.)
Now, referring at your examples...
The first one: Αυτός σε ακούει. = He hears you. The greek sentence can also be written as: Αυτός ακούει εσένα.* and as you can see, its syntax is exactly the same with the english sentence. As I mentioned before, one can put the personal pronoun of "you" before a verb, and so, εσένα turns up to σε. Εσένα or σε is the accusative direct object of the sentence.
For the second one: Αυτός σου διαβάσει. Basically, the sentence is not well written, the verb should be in the Present Tense (Ενεστώτας), so we have: Αυτός σου διαβάζει. Verbs like "διαβάζω" (to read), "απαντώ" (to answer, to respond), "λέω" (to say, to tell) etc., tend to have the personal pronoun as a genitive indirect object in a sentence, because the direct one is a noun.
1) Εγώ διαβάζω σε (ε)σένα την ερώτηση. / Εγώ διαβάζω την ερώτηση σε (ε)σένα -> Εγώ σου διαβάζω την ερώτηση. (I read the question to you. / I read you the question.) [Be careful, as σε is not a pronoun here, but a preposition.]
2) Αυτός είπε σε αυτήν μία ιστορία / Αυτός είπε μία ιστορία σε αυτήν. -> Αυτός της είπε μία ιστορία. (He told her a story / He told a story to her.)
But even when no direct object is somewhere in the sentence, the personal pronoun still remains as it is, and has the role of the indirect object.
1) (Εγώ) σου διαβάζω. (I am reading / read to you.)
2) (Αυτός) της είπε. (He said to her / told her.)
I hope you will find this useful, and will not confuse you more.