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Ænglisc / Old English - Lesson X - Grammar & Grammatical Cases VI (The Instrumental Case)


Ƿesaþ ġē hāl!

If you missed the previous lesson (The Dative Case) click here -

Now, this next case can - in a way - be seen an extension of the last.

The instrumental case (INSTRU) is used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which something -- this can either be a physical object or an abstract idea - is achieved. - see ModE example for elaboration on the concept.

Technical Example I: I wrote the note with a pen/ I wrote the note (by) using a pen.

Example II:

(ModE) hand-woven

(OE) handum ġebrōden

Why is this in the Instrumental? This is an example of the instrumental that may be a little hard to grasp. The Instrum. case, in this case, is formed because a noun (in the dative case) has been combined with a past participle (when the past tense of a verb is used as an adjective),

Example III:

(ModE) Therefore, he overcame the enemy

(OE) þȳ hē þone fēond ofercƿōm

Why is this in the Instrumental? This is an example of the instrumental being used in terms of casual expressions (using þȳ, þon, hƿȳ, hƿon). What is in the Instru.? þȳ!

Summary: The Instru. case is used for many reasons (see video for additional ways to use it), such the use of prepositions that show action 'by means of...' (e.g with an arrow, Harold fell) !

That is all for this lesson! For more information on the Instru. Case, click here -

If this has inspired you/ started you to think that OE may be for you, check out Leornende Eald Englisc, here

If you haven't already, please endorse / upvote the Course suggestion page for Old English below to increase the chance of a Duolingo course:

Keep updated by bookmarking the lesson list! -

Iċ þancie ēow!

P.S - I know that these last few lessons have been VERY grammar heavy, but we will take a break next lesson to listen to another amazing OE song before moving on to moods!

September 4, 2016



A note I'd like to put there is that you can also express 'I wrote the note with a pen' in English as 'I wrote the note penwise'.


oh, ok :) I didn't know that :)

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