Ænglisc / Old English - Lesson X - Grammar & Grammatical Cases VI (The Instrumental Case)
[I TAKE NO PERSONAL CREDIT FOR THESE LESSONS]
Ƿesaþ ġē hāl!
Now, this next case can - in a way - be seen an extension of the last.
The instrumental case (INSTRU) is used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which something -- this can either be a physical object or an abstract idea - is achieved. - see ModE example for elaboration on the concept.
Technical Example I: I wrote the note with a pen/ I wrote the note (by) using a pen.
(OE) handum ġebrōden
Why is this in the Instrumental? This is an example of the instrumental that may be a little hard to grasp. The Instrum. case, in this case, is formed because a noun (in the dative case) has been combined with a past participle (when the past tense of a verb is used as an adjective),
(ModE) Therefore, he overcame the enemy
(OE) þȳ hē þone fēond ofercƿōm
Why is this in the Instrumental? This is an example of the instrumental being used in terms of casual expressions (using þȳ, þon, hƿȳ, hƿon). What is in the Instru.? þȳ!
Summary: The Instru. case is used for many reasons (see video for additional ways to use it), such the use of prepositions that show action 'by means of...' (e.g with an arrow, Harold fell) !
Iċ þancie ēow!
P.S - I know that these last few lessons have been VERY grammar heavy, but we will take a break next lesson to listen to another amazing OE song before moving on to moods!