"הנחש נמצא מתחת לסוס."
Translation:The snake is under the horse.
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I agree with you about מעל/על and it makes me think that maybe מתחת/תחת were once used in an analogous way, but I don't think they are used like this today. I think the only time I hear תחת used as a preposition it is in a metaphorical rather than physical sense - תחת השפעה etc..
The form תחת is mostly formal these days, and used only in some particular contexts. Indeed your example תחת השפעה is not very formal, but there's a very limited set of nouns that can follow the תחת this way (תחת חסותו של jumps to mind).
Also, another little formal/outdated use of תחת is "instead" or "in exchange for": רעה תחת טובה.
"יְהִי-דָן נָחָשׁ עֲלֵי-דֶרֶךְ, שְׁפִיפֹן עֲלֵי-אֹרַח--הַנֹּשֵׁךְ, עִקְּבֵי-סוּס, וַיִּפֹּל רֹכְבוֹ, אָחוֹר"