"Κίτρινο όπως ένα λεμόνι."

Translation:Yellow like a lemon.

September 5, 2016

16 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Gerardd88
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I find the etymology here very interesting.

According to Wiktionary the words meaning lemon in some IE languages like French citron or Polish cytryna originated from Latin citrus which in turn comes "probably via Etruscan from Ancient Greek κέδρος."

Words like this one in Greek, English lemon or Spanish limón which is another common name for a lemon originated "from Persian لیمو ‎(līmū), cognate with Sanskrit निम्बू ‎(nimbū, “lime”).

I could find very little about the etymology of κίτρινο. How are κίτρινο and citrus/citron related? Maybe κίτρινο is somehow related with that κέδρος?

Does someone know anything more about it or can google it more in Greek?

September 5, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/JacobPast177
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I had a quick look in the Etymological Dictionary by Γ. Μπαμπινιώτης, the Dictionary of Ancient Greek by Ι. Σταματάκος, and in the Greek and English Wikipedia. If I understand correctly the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period (ca. 323 to 30 BC) did not know the lemon (Citrus × limon), but only the citron (Citrus medica - a different fruit, see the English Wikipedia), which they called το μηδικόν μήλον ("the Median apple/apple of the Medes") or το κίτρον, the latter being a loanword from the Romans (and consequently probably a reborrowing of the Ancient Greek word κέδρος). Κίτρινος is anything that has the color of the κίτρον. [It is noteworthy that the lemon seems "to be hybrid between bitter orange (sour orange) and citron" (Wikipedia).]

September 15, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/ApostolosB4

After doing some research the only thing is could find is that Κίτρινος means: The one that has the color of the citrus

September 5, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Schynd
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And from κίτρινος we got the word cetrino in Spanish, meaning "greenish yellow". But we mostly use it to describe the face of someone feeling nausea. ;)

September 13, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Lioara7
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I'm a little confused. Σαν and όπως are both translated with "as" or "like", but σαν doesn't need the indefinite article, while όπως requires one? Κίτρινο σαν λεμόνι. is correct and Κίτρινο σαν ένα λεμόνι is not?

September 18, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/teopap2
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After σαν you may use the definite of indefinite article, or no article at all:

  • Κίτρινο σαν το λεμόνι
  • Κίτρινο σαν ένα λεμόνι
  • Κίτρινο σαν λεμόνι

are all correct.

After όπως you must use an article, definite or indefinite:

  • Κίτρινο όπως το λεμόνι
  • Κίτρινο όπως ένα λεμόνι

are both correct, but:

  • Κίτρινο όπως λεμόνι - wrong

Apart from that, the two words both mean "like" (=similar to)

September 28, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Lioara7
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Thank you so much for your explanations.

September 29, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/dieprinzessin
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What is the difference between σαν and όπως ?

September 19, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/sarabear1000

what is the difference between σαν and όπως?

September 26, 2016

https://www.duolingo.com/Phil682961

"Yellow as a lemon" is accepted, but probably shouldn't be, because in English it implies a comparison of degree, and I think would correspond to "τόσο κίτρινο όσο ένα λεμόνι" in Greek?

September 13, 2018

https://www.duolingo.com/AniOhevYayin

In ancient Gk accentuation invented by Alexandrian grammarians, the so-called polytonic orthography, this adverb of manner was spelled with rough breathing: ὅπως, hopōs. In Essential Modern Gk Grammar, D.Q. Adams (9-10) states that smooth and rough breathing marks are no longer pronounced but are necessary for correct spelling. Looking on the internet, it appears that the switch to monotonic orthography happened in 1982, which explains why my copy of Mandeson's Lexicon (1961, p. 876) gives the accent ὅπως. I am interested in hearing the thoughts of native Gk speakers about the historic switch to monotonic. The Wiki overview of this matter indicates that an N. Panayotakis was critical of the switch: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_diacritics

February 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Schynd
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Who cares? I mean, there is no controversy around this issue. Modern Greek has been monotonic for 37 years and more than two generations have been taught the monotonic system. You visit Greece and the monotonic system is all there is. You live in Greece and the monotonic system is all there is. What exactly do you mean?

February 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AniOhevYayin

I didn't know that there is no controversy. I'm looking forward to reading G. Horrocks' Greek: A History of its Language and Speakers (Wiley-Blackwell, 2014) to look into some of these questions that keep cropping up for me.

February 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Schynd
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Sorry if my comment turned a bit mean. I just meant that polytonic system is nowhere to be found in Greece. For many years it has been unnecessary and it certainly was impractical for such a lively and normal language as Modern Greek is. No one really "defends" the polytonic system nowadays. It is just well revered as a historical stage of an important language, but it's just not there anymore. Nowhere to be found in modern Greece, seriously.

February 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/AniOhevYayin

That's ok. Adams in his Essential Gk Grammar (pp. 9-10) claims that smooth and rough breathing are essential for spelling. I'm not sure if that is just an old perspective or if it has merit. I'm thinking it's probably the former because that book also goes on about Katharevusa, but apparently Greece got rid of that in 1976. ευχαριστώ πολύ

February 17, 2019

https://www.duolingo.com/Schynd
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In my opinion, that statement would have merit if smooth and rough breathing had something to do with modern pronunciation. And the adjective "modern" is misleading here: the word όπως has been consistently pronounced without an aspiration since at least 1600 years ago. So I'd say it's hardly essential.

February 18, 2019
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