Just adding my native English view. Omitting the article is also perfectly acceptable for some professions in English also. I would never say "I am teacher," but phrases like "he is Mayor of the city" or "I am President of the committee" are acceptable in English.
Whenever there is a position that is held by only one person and we're describing the position, then omitting the article is natural. e.g. "I am Commander OF the 45th Battlion"