"Wyglądasz jak twoja siostra."
Translation:You look like your sister.
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No, I think it's wrong with this specific sentence. Not exactly sure why it is wrong, though...
I think it may be because the sentence is kinda like "You look like your sister looks like" in meaning, so in a way "your sister" becomes a subject of her own clause, with another verb that is not really explicitly written. And therefore "swoja siostra" is like saying that she's her own sister.
I would have said that it were wrong because there is no explicit subject in this sentence, only twoja siostra as an object. The subject is omitted as the verb already presumes it through its suffix. Maybe it were possible if Ty was mentioned in the beginning? „Ty wypadasz jak swoja siostra”—does this sound more natural?
If the subject were omitted, then this sentence would be subjectless, which it isn't. It's still there, but it's expressed by the verb conjugation.
Siostra is a second subject in this sentence (the verb wygląda is implied) and the reflexive possessive pronoun can never be paired with subjects (can never take the nominative case).
Phrases like To swój człowiek! (That's ma' man!) are no exception, because swój is used here as an adjective with a different meaning.
I agree with your first paragraph, I expressed that poorly, ambiguously.
What I am not sure about is what you wrote in your third paragraph, that siostra was just a second subject, as I cannot formulate a question that would confirm this. The only alternative to your assessment I can think of is that she could be a Dative, although this required a different-but-similar verb. (ähneln — resemble)
The third paragraph is similar, and again, I am not sure. It is descriptive of your friend, that's clear, but it sounds strange to place a natural subject or object in the place of an adjective. Adjectives describe a condition, a state, something this barely does, you describe by this exemplary sentence an affiliation, perhaps ownership, although I wouldn't go as far as the latter, for non-grammatical reasons. That is to say, I see your point and understand it, but I think I cannot agree as I do not fully understand it; the idea that non-adjectives could function as adjectives. At least in my native German language, I hardly ever apply nouns as such, let alone (human) beings.
Well, if it's dative, then why doesn't the noun take the dative case (siostrze)? :D
Think of the German translation: "Du siehst so aus wie deine Schwester (aussieht)." It's also nominative (wer?/was?). We don't use the second verb, because it's semantically redundant.
'Jak' is a conjunction which can either compare (1) two subjects, or two (2) objects:
(1) Kocham cię jak siostra. - I love you like a sister (does).
(2) Kocham cię jak siostrę. - I love you like (I love) my sister.
In our sentence, we don't even have an object (wyglądać is intransitive), so only option 1) is possible.
Here you can see that swój has two distinct meanings:
swój I zaimek zastępujący w odpowiednich kontekstach inne zaimki dzierżawcze [...]
a pronoun which replaces other possessive pronouns in appropriate contexts [...]
swój II ktoś bliski, należący do tego samego środowiska, do rodziny
someone close, who belongs to the same environment, the same family
I understand your first two subjects, and would like to emphasise that the second verb in your German sentence, which you placed inside brackets, would be redundant in German as well, although you might seldom meet it in Classical works, or simply olden writings, although in terms of poetic emphasis as well, as a pathétique.
As for your third paragraph, I would have understood it as a subject in your three-word expression at the end, but of course, it would be grammatically illogical, as there was no such comparison, but rather an exclamation of ownership, as I described it, although affiliation would have fit better.
Finally, with your (1) example, I understand the idea of the subject as an adjective, and a question to myself reemerged in my mind, but I did not know how to utter it in English. IN German, we have an adjective-like concept we call the »Attribut«. (Modifier in English) There have been a couple of occasions either in the Polish or the Czech course (Likely both, but I would fail to mention any particular examples of former lessons) in which such modifiers were asked for, and yesterday in the evening, I thought that the sister could almost be like a modifier, although it of course were wrong to declare her one as she was placed as an autonomous component.
As for the swój (swoja in this sentence), I think that the main problem on why it cannot be used is simply because the iterator is not her brother, it is a third person unrelated to the iterator who is talked about, so that the personal possessive pronoun cannot be applied. The recipient would immediately—and falsely—believe that it was the iterator's sister who it was talked about. At least that I understood.