Translation:The white and black
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My bigg New Oxford Dictionary of English quotes the term substantive as 'dated' and means a noun. 'Noun' does not generate the word 'substantive'. (p1268)
The Oxford English Grammar (Greenbaum - 1996) seems to make no mention of 'substantive' in its Index (p650), or in the Glossary (p633)
Substantiv seems to be the most usual word in German for a 'noun'.
However, perhaps this is a difference in BrE and AmE terminology.
That may very well be, or it could be regional, or it could be an idiosyncrasy of my French and Latin teachers. They used the term to refer to an adjective used alone as a noun, e.g. the French national sports teams are usually les bleues (the blues). I am sure there is a better, more modern term for this, but I am not a linguist of any sort, so I do not know it. I always assumed that the term my teachers used, substantive, was itself a substantive, really referring to a substantive adjective.
I'm not sure that is universally the case. "Which version of Frankenstein do you prefer?" "I prefer the black and white." As a fan of old movies, I say "the black and white" all the time. In police procedurals, I also hear it used of police cars, as opposed to the plain cars driven by detectives.
Fair enough. It's only 99.9% the case. Enough, in my book, to justify accepting "black & white" as a concept without the "the". As well as with (for fans of 1930s police car films and Scotch whisky).
Isn't the object implied in all your examples though? The black and white (film) in written English this would not be a complete sentence. Police cars are pretty obscure reference and would probably be called "a black and white" or "the black and whites" more often anyway. We could just decide it applies to the cookies you get in NYC then a well. "The black and white" just take doesn't make sense in English in any but the most obscure references as it naturally leaves the reader saying "The black and white WHAT?"