My bigg New Oxford Dictionary of English quotes the term substantive as 'dated' and means a noun. 'Noun' does not generate the word 'substantive'. (p1268)
The Oxford English Grammar (Greenbaum - 1996) seems to make no mention of 'substantive' in its Index (p650), or in the Glossary (p633)
Substantiv seems to be the most usual word in German for a 'noun'.
However, perhaps this is a difference in BrE and AmE terminology.
That may very well be, or it could be regional, or it could be an idiosyncrasy of my French and Latin teachers. They used the term to refer to an adjective used alone as a noun, e.g. the French national sports teams are usually les bleues (the blues). I am sure there is a better, more modern term for this, but I am not a linguist of any sort, so I do not know it. I always assumed that the term my teachers used, substantive, was itself a substantive, really referring to a substantive adjective.
I'm not sure that is universally the case. "Which version of Frankenstein do you prefer?" "I prefer the black and white." As a fan of old movies, I say "the black and white" all the time. In police procedurals, I also hear it used of police cars, as opposed to the plain cars driven by detectives.
Isn't the object implied in all your examples though? The black and white (film) in written English this would not be a complete sentence. Police cars are pretty obscure reference and would probably be called "a black and white" or "the black and whites" more often anyway. We could just decide it applies to the cookies you get in NYC then a well. "The black and white" just take doesn't make sense in English in any but the most obscure references as it naturally leaves the reader saying "The black and white WHAT?"
That's me… I just saw the link to your comment. Two years ago and it still hasn't been fixed ! DL is free, so cheerful forbearance is required, but the determination of some people, including moderators, to never ever correct mistakes is almost comical. That's why I stopped using it. Τί νά κάνουμε;
Moderators cannot fix mistakes, we are users like you and see the exact same things you see in the forums. Only course contributors have access to the lesson making process and can make (some) changes. So, if you spot a mistake, file a report using the option "My answer should be accepted". This will go straight to the contributors' system. :)
In Greek (the phrase being "Δεν είναι άσπρο ή μαύρο", note that Greek uses "or", while it's "and" in English) mostly means that, for a given situation, there are various different scenarios/outcomes between the worst- and best-case scenario. It can be used for feelings in the same way as well.