"I think that they played us"
as in, tricked us into something
"I think that they played with us" as in, we've been playing basketball together.
אני חושב שהם שיחקו את המשחק המלוכלך איתנו. I think they played the dirty game with us.
From my experience in Israel, שיחקו is pronounced "sikhaqú" here (3 syllables), but should be pronounced "sikh'qú" (2 syllables).
I hope this helps.
played could be either a game or in English it also means played a cruel or sinister trick on us