https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo

Ukrainian Alphabet [UK. GRAMMAR PORTAL]

TseDanylo
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Вітаю!

Ukrainian is an East Slavic language spoken primarily in Western Ukraine and Central Ukraine by 40 million people making it the third most spoken Slavic language by number of native speakers in the world!

Alphabet

Ukrainian is written in a variant of the Cyrillic alphabet (like Russian, Serbian, etc.). It consists of 33 letters some of which are similar to the Latin ones. Below is all 23 consonants and 10 vowels following this template:

  • Uppercase Lowercase - Letter Name - Closest English Equivalent

УКРАЇНСЬКА АБЕТКА

  • А а - ah - Cat
  • Б б - beh - Book
  • В в - weh/veh - Vet/When*
  • Г г - heh - How
  • Ґ ґ - geh - Gate
  • Д д - deh - Door
  • Е е - eh - Red
  • Є є - yeh - Yes
  • Ж ж - zheh - Measure
  • З з - zeh - Zoo
  • И и - ih - PIt (but longer)
  • І і - ee - Meet
  • Ї ї - yih - Year (but longer
  • Й й - yot - Yes
  • К к - kah - Couch
  • Л л - el - Loose
  • М м - em - Moose
  • Н н - en - No
  • О о - oh - Goat
  • П п - peh - Put
  • Р р - er - Like the thrilled r in Spanish or Italian
  • С с - es - Soon
  • Т т -te - Take
  • У у - oo - Do
  • Ф ф - ef - Forget
  • Х х - kha - ch in the Scottisch "loch"
  • Ц ц - tse - Cats
  • Ч ч - cheh - Chase
  • Ш ш - shah - Shy
  • Щ щ - shcha - Strong/Fish ch*urch
  • ь -myakih znak (м’який знак) - Softens the previous consonant (more below)
  • Ю ю - yoo - You
  • Я я - yah - Yard
  • ' - apostrof (апостроф) - Strengthens the following vowel (more below)

В can be pronounced the initial sound at the start of when or in vet* but most people ignore this rule and pronounce it like a V. It is usually pronounced the W at the start of a word, before of a consonant or at the end of a word.

М’який знак

The м’який знак (ь) makes some consonants sound softer, as if there was a y sound before it (even though there isn't). So below will be a pronunciation exercise to help you learn the difference. But first, here is the list of consonants that have a different sound after the м’який знак.

  • Нн
  • Тт
  • Дд
  • Цц
  • Дз дз (pronounced like Meds, not a letter but still has a unique sound)
  • Сс
  • Зз
  • Лл
  • Рр

Pronuncation Exercise

Try saying these phonetic English sounds and compare the way your tongue goes in each one. (Note the r is a thrill like Spanish unlike English). Also, try to pronounce them as one syllable, if you don't know how; Put your thumb on your chin and try to make your your chin only goes down once.

  • Nah - Nyah
  • Tah - Tyah
  • Dah - Dyah
  • Tsah - Tsyah
  • Dzah - Dzyah
  • Sah - Syah
  • Zah - Zyah
  • Lah - Lyah
  • Rah - Ryah

The first one is how you pronounce the initial sound followed by -а (на), the second (minus the -ah) is what it sounds like after м’який знак (нь)

Апостроф

The апосроф' (apostrophe), emphasises/stresses the vowel after it and stops softing of consonants (like the acute á accent in Spanish and the hard sign in Russian combined). Here are some examples:

М'ясо (meat) - pronounced: mYAHsoh Комп'ютер (computer) - pronounced: komPYOOter

Video

This video shows the pronunciation and examples for all 33 letters.

Introduction To Ukrainian Grammar

The Grammar Portal

The Language Portal

2 years ago

16 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/Bobboski
Bobboski
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Very clear and accurate post!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo
TseDanylo
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Thank you :)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/Alan2k02
Alan2k02
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Thanks for the post !!!

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo
TseDanylo
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No problem :)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/BhabaniPrasad

very very helpfull and thanks 4 d post

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo
TseDanylo
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You are very welcome :)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/BhabaniPrasad

it could be best if there is an ukrainian example to understand the letter.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo
TseDanylo
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This video is great for that actually

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/BhabaniPrasad

thank u so so much..

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo
TseDanylo
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No problem :)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/anas356803

interesting

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/JanLna
JanLna
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Thanks! Díky! :-)

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo
TseDanylo
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Нема за що!

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/xxxAllyxx

really good and helpful

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SantiagoChau
SantiagoChau
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Sorry, the ь in Ukrainian sounds as a "ya" like if I just put нь it sounds "Nya"

1 year ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo
TseDanylo
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No, it really doesn't. That would be spelt "ня" for example "кухня" (kitchen) "нь" is basically "ня" without the "а"

1 year ago
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