No, I am from Southamerica. We say café claro (light coffee, or weak coffee), o café oscuro (dark coffee). But our coffee is different from international coffee. In each country they say it in a different way. Most people in the big cities prefer "café claro". But in "regiones cafeteras" (where coffee is grown) they prefer dark coffee.
What you are referring to as cafe oscuro, etc. Is the type of roast. In English = light, medium, dark, bold, etc.
In comparison, weak vs strong coffee refers to the amount of water you add. If there is too much water, you'll get a weak cup of coffee.
Weak coffee is the strength of the brew, (water to bean ratio).
A better example (imho) s the opposite of weak coffee... Turkish coffee ( prepared how it's drunk in Turkey)... which is presented in American media as being too strong for most of our palates.
(And if this is true, I guess many Turkish coffee drinkers would say American coffee is too weak).