This only translates to morning, noon and night. It doesn't mean breakfast, lunch and dinner. You would need to add "ăn cơm" in front each phrases to complete it.
not necessary, "bữa" could mean meal and that is enough to indicate the morning meal, breakfast.
I think, buổi sáng, trưa, và tôi, means in the morning, afternoon, and night.
All add "have/has" the front off. Example. I have the dinner with my parents