Not only does "world language" work in English, it seems to have become almost a set phrase, which surprised me. It beats "global language" in a Web search, and trounces it in published books, according to this ngram (world language is the red line):
Notwithstanding that, it does use different vocabulary and grammar than the Hebrew sentence, and translating "שפה עולמית" as "world language" doesn't demonstrate that we recognize those differences. The Hebrew uses a noun and adjective, while "world language" is two nouns that I think would be שפת עולם in Hebrew.
My preference would be for the course to accept "world language", while telling us about the linguistic difference and perhaps giving reduced points. (Fat chance, right?)