I assume this is similar to many other languages where the literal translation is something like "the sugar pleases me" ?
Yes, the Greek phrase has the completely reverse structure from the English one. Αρέσω does not mean 'to please' ("ευχαριστώ" does, also means 'to thank'), it really means 'like' but more like 'to be liked by', that's why the EN object becomes the subject in GR and vice versa.
Yes, it's more like "the sugar is liked by me" but it is not passive voice, it's in active like "il me plaît/manque" in French.
josclag! I think that your suggestion to use "please" as a working hypothesis in order to get subject and object correct is better than to turn it into a passive sentence.
I like sugar -sugar pleases me- η ζάχαρη μου αρέση or μου αρέσει η ζάχαρη
Ι like you -you please me- αρέσεις εμένα or μου αρέσεις
the passive form: "you are liked by me" does not give how to conjugate "αρέσει" nor that the Greek object is I/εγώ
Except that αρέσει and to like reverse subject and object the OBJECT of αρέσω is INDIRECT that is GENITIVE for personal pronouns and ΣΕ+ACCUSATIVE for nouns.
Μου άρεσε ο κήπος. Άρεσε και στον πατέρα --(the garden pleased me. It also pleased my father)--I liked the garden. Father also liked it
Τake a look at Βικιλεξικό: https://el.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%B1%CF%81%CE%AD%CF%83%CF%89 The expression is used in the third person. Take it as it is. It is the reverse in English, subject->object and vice versa. Also: μου αρέσει να+verb in subjunctive. But sometimes one can tell the verb the same as it is in English: (εγώ) αρέσω στον/στην/στο +somebody etc.