"Ga i afal?"
Translation:May I have an apple?
Am I right in thinking that, in this sentence, the word 'have' is not actually expressed in Welsh? I understand from the notes that 'ga i . . . ?' can be coupled with all manner of other verbs, but in this sentence there is no second verb. At least, so it seems to me.
Yeah, you can think of Ga i...? as both "May I...?" and "May I have...?".
The reason is that the word Ga i...? is a form of cael "have" so you don't need to say the word twice.
Diolch! – This is slightly reminiscent of something that occurs in the Germanic languages: there, likewise, a modal verb is sometimes felt to convey within itself the meaning of a second verb (an infinitive) that would normally follow it, with the result that that infinitive can be omitted. In this instance the elided verb is normally not 'have', as in Welsh, but 'go'. Shakespeare could write 'I must to England', meaning 'I must go to England', and German does the same thing today: 'Ich muss nach Hamburg' (literally 'I must to Hamburg'), with the verb 'gehen' or 'fahren' ('go' or 'travel') left out.
"May i've an apple?" Doesn't really make sense in English. I've (I have) is past tense, e.g. "I've done that."
You are right, that does not make sense in English. If it is coming up, then that is most likely to be a bug in the underlying Duo software, and the course teams can do nothing but report it.
None of the current correct answers have 'May I've an apple'. You must have come across a previously erroneous one still floating around in the Duolingo database.
ga i before a verb means (i will have) therefore,( Ga i afal) translates as (i will have an apple)
The positive statement would be 'ca i afal'
The form beginning with 'ga i' is a question. This is literally 'will I have an apple?'
In actual use this becomes 'May I have an apple?'
What rmcode says is technically right. Ca i afal is from Caf i afal i.e. the positive statement.
However wayne523954 is also right in that in practice, the vast majority of Welsh speakers use the mutated form for statement and the question, the statement being Ga i afal (or perhaps Mi ga i afal or Fe ga i afal) and the question Ga i afal?.
That doesn't mean you should learn Ca i afal though, as it's closer to the form you're like to find in writing and in formal speech.