"The bread is good."
Translation:Le pain est bon.
Bread is in the third person and not the second. You're talking about it, not to it.
In English it is "I am", "you are", "he/she/it is". In French it is "je suis", "tu es", "il est".
Anytime you use de, de la, du, des, it usually means "some". For example, je voudrais du lait s'il vous plait (I would like some milk please) If you just le, la, les, it means "the". Example: j'aime le lait (I like the milk OR I like milk).
why does the sentence take "Le pain" but every other single time in the history of french it is "du pain"?
Le pain is bread in general. Du pain is of the bread. So, "the bread is good" for this, and "je mange du pain" is "I eat (from) the bread."
Remember that the word "du" can mean two completely different things. Yes, one may be "of the", but not in this context. The other meaning is the partitive article "du". It refers to an unspecified singular quantity. As such, it may be translated as "some" but more often it is omitted in English. "Du" is not appropriate in the given sentence, however, since it is speaking about "the bread", not "some bread". Open this link in a browser for a complete explanation of partitive articles: http://french.about.com/od/grammar/fl/Du-De-La-Deshellip-Expressing-Unspecified-Quantities-In-French.htm