Latin for Duolingo: Verbs Present Tense 3, Lesson 3
Salvete omnes! Welcome back to Latin for Duolingo. This is an ongoing, unofficial course in Latin; if you would like to catch up with previous lessons, you can find a directory, a classified vocabulary list, and Memrise courses at these links:
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- Previous lesson, Verbs Present Tense 2
We’re gradually adding more verbs in this set of lessons. This time, we’ll see some verbs that are frequently used with infinitives. Because we haven’t formally studied infinitives, the sentences for them will be basic, but we’ll have a more detailed lesson on infinitives soon. Also, we have some verbs that are used impersonally (only ever in 3rd person singular, with “it” as the assumed subject); they also tend to be used with infinitives and some have more complicated constructions. Debeo/oportet are used in much the same way to express necessity, so I’m including examples of each. The English translation, like the Latin word order, can vary greatly. It won’t be possible to give every conceivable variation. This is where translation becomes more of an art than a science!
You have learned a good number of basic verb forms; Latin tends to expand on those basics by adding prepositional prefixes to the roots which change the meaning. For example, you have learned that the irregular verb “eo = go.” We can add prefixes and get abeo, adeo, exeo, ineo, pereo, redeo, transeo; and the same goes for many other verbs. I’ll start gradually introducing them... once you recognize the base forms it will be fairly easy to understand the ones with prepositions added.
nato, natare, natavi, natatus, 1 = swim
seco, secare, secui, sectus, 1 = cut, divide
debeo, debēre, debui, debitus, 2 (w. inf.) = owe, ought, must, should
licet, licēre, licuit, 2 (w. dat.) = it is permitted, it is allowed
oportet, oportēre, oportuit, 2 (used w. acc. + inf.) = it behooves, it is necessary, it is right, must, ought
retineo, retinēre, retinui, retentus, 2 = hold back, keep, restrain
credo, credere, credidi, creditus, 3 = believe, trust, entrust
dimitto, dimittere, dimisi, dimissus, 3 = send away, dismiss, release
abeo, abire, abii (abivi), abitum, irreg. = go away, leave, depart
exeo, exire, exii (exivi), exitum, irreg. = go out, exit
Gaius exit. = Gaius goes out.
Omnes exeunt. = Everyone goes out.
Non abitis. = You (pl.) aren’t going away.
De scholā abimus. = We leave school.
Paula panem secat. = Paula cuts the bread.
Malum in quattuor partes secas. = You cut the apple into four pieces.
Liberi in flumine natant. = The children swim in the river.
In aquā frigidā nato. = I swim in the cold water.
Sic credo. = I believe so.
Marcus mihi credit. = Marcus believes me. (Credo is frequently used with the dative; think “gives credence to me”)
Paulae creditis. = You (pl.) trust Paula.
Liberi nobis credunt. = The children trust us.
Liberi in nos credunt. = The children believe in us. (Credo is also frequently used with in + acc.)
Mater pueros dimittit, sed puellas retinet. = Mother sends the boys away, but holds back the girls.
Vigiles publici piratas retinent. = The policemen restrain the pirates.
Hic natare non licet. = Swimming is not permitted here./It is not permitted to swim here.
Licetne mihi natare? = Am I allowed to swim?
Licetne eis abire? = Are they allowed to go away?
Licetne nobis spectare? = Is it permitted for us to watch?/May we watch?
Licetne mihi nunc abire? = May I leave now?
Luciae pecuniam debeo. = I owe Lucia money.
Debemus laborare./ Oportet nos laborare. = We must work.
Debet dormire./Oportet eum dormire. = He ought to sleep.
Debeo linguam Latinam discere./ Oportet me linguam Latinam discere. = I ought to learn Latin./It is necessary for me to learn Latin.
Nunc dimittis servum tuum. = Now you dismiss/release your servant. (Luke 2:29)
Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem. = I believe in God the Father almighty. (first line of the Apostles' Creed)
I hope you find this lesson helpful. We’ll continue with more verbs next week. Comments, corrections or questions are welcome if you have them. Bonam fortunam vobis!
On to the next lesson: Verbs Present Tense 3, Lesson 4