Duolingo is the most popular way to learn languages in the world. Best of all, it's 100% free!

https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo

How to you form the infinitive and -ing forms?

TseDanylo
  • 12
  • 11
  • 11
  • 11
  • 10
  • 10
  • 10
  • 9
  • 9
  • 8
  • 7
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 5
  • 2

Hi, I speak Irish relatively well but an American asked me today what are the rules for how to say "to _" and "___ing". And I was stumped as I just knew when to use things where.

I know, that the irregular verbs obviously well, irregular. For example; Ba mhaith liom a rá, I would like to say ( is from deir). And the -ing form is ag caint i.e. "Tá sí ag caint as Spáinnis", She is speaking Spanish.

So, I thought of the first regular verb I could think of, "bog!", I thought "Mé ag bogadh", but then immediately I thought, "Sé ag cur báisti!" So, I just said "Ceapaim go bhfuil an rialacha neamhrialta". But wait why did I say "Go bhfuil?!"

This all just comes naturally from speaking and having it drilled into me at school but I just don't know why I do it, I just do it! Can someone explain it to me???

2 years ago

6 Comments


https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1503

Along with the infinitive (e.g. “We like to swim”), English has three “-ing” forms: the “deverbal” noun (e.g. “Swimming is wonderful”), the gerund (e.g. “Swimming quickly is challenging”), and the present participle (e.g. “We were swimming all day”). As patbo noted, the uses of the Irish verbal noun (or its “deverbal” counterpart) cover all of these, e.g. Is maith linn snámh, Tá an snámh go haoibhinn, Tá an snámh tapa dúshlánach, Bhíomar ag snámh an lá uile respectively.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/patbo
patbo
  • 15
  • 11
  • 11
  • 11
  • 9
  • 9
  • 9
  • 8
  • 7
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2

This form is called the verbal noun and you're right that it's rather irregular. GnaG mentions a few common patterns: http://nualeargais.ie/gnag/verbnom.htm

go bhfuil is a completely different thing. go is the conjunction meaning that (I think that...) and it causes eclipsis as well as requiring a dependent verb form (fuil instead of ). Not sure if this explains what you were looking for, though. If not, can you tell what is the unclear/surprising part about the construction to you?

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/TseDanylo
TseDanylo
  • 12
  • 11
  • 11
  • 11
  • 10
  • 10
  • 10
  • 9
  • 9
  • 8
  • 7
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 6
  • 5
  • 2

Is there a rule for the fuil verb form? Also, can you give examples of other verbs in that form. Sorry, it's just I don't understand Irish grammar. Deir mé cad a deir mé :)

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/scilling
scilling
  • 25
  • 1503

Some irregular verbs have separate “dependent” forms; they’re called that because use of those forms is dependent upon following certain words, such as go, , or . Using as an example, one would say Tá tú and Bhí sibh using the independent forms and bhí, but one would say Go bhfuil tú and Ní raibh sibh using their corresponding dependent forms fuil and raibh.

Other examples include:

  • Rinne sí vs. Ní dhéarna sí for déan ;
  • Gheobhaimid and Gheobhainn vs. Ní bhfaighimid and Ní bhfaighinn for faigh;
  • Chonaic sé vs. Ní fhaca sé for feic ;
  • D’íosfaí vs. Ní íosfaí for ith ;
  • Chuaigh siad vs Ní dheachaigh siad for téigh.

Many of the irregular verbs’ current independent forms were originally dependent forms, with the old independent forms either limited to certain dialects or no longer used; for example, the current independent form feicim was originally the dependent form of the old independent form chím.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/silmeth
silmeth
  • 23
  • 22
  • 10
  • 10
  • 7
  • 5
  • 2
  • 46

And AFAIK some of those independent forms are still popular in dialects, eg. chím in Munster (vs ní fheicim), and you can also find them in Scottish Gaelic.

2 years ago

https://www.duolingo.com/SeanMeaneyPL
SeanMeaneyPL
  • 22
  • 22
  • 20
  • 17
  • 11
  • 10
  • 10
  • 8
  • 7
  • 6
  • 5
  • 5
  • 4
  • 4
  • 3
  • 16

The Irish verbal noun has regular forms ending in -eadh, -adh (briseadh, bogadh) and many irregular forms (rá, cur, bailiú etc) which you just have to learn. The form with "ag" gives the verbal noun -ing meaning (tá mé ag dul - I am going). The naked form, or that with the particle "a" give an infinitive equivalent. (Ba mhaith liom dul - I would like to go OR Ní féidir liom an t-airgead a bhriseadh - I am unable to change the money). When you use the particle "a" the VN acting as an infinitive equivalent is lenited.

2 years ago