That's right νύχτα" means night and they both come from a much earlier source which also gave us German "Nacht" and Latin "nox" and so many more. I use this: "http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=night"
Oxford gives only: "goodnight", Merrium-Webster gives only: "goodnight" Cambridge gives "Sorry, no search result for "goodnight*".
And finally Cambridge gives: "good night" with this explanation "said when people leave each other in the evening or before going to bed or to sleep": But then gives this example: "Well, good night - sleep well". "Give the children a good-night kiss."
But wait: it gives another example: "Good night, Mummy." "Goodnight, darling!"
So, what I shall do is give both as correct. What's your view? Many thanks for your input. Let us know anything you find that needs editing or that you would like some clarification.
Can someone please help me with the rules surrounding the letter "υ"? Sometimes it acts as a consonant and makes the English "V" sound such as in "αυτό, αυτοί, αυτί, αυτή", but then other times it makes a vowel sound like the English "U" such as in "ντουντούκα". And yet other occasions it makes the English sound closer to that of a long "E" such as in "καληνύχτα" and "λυπάμαι".
So how do you know when to use "υ" when spelling and conversely, how do you know when to pronounce "υ" according to the correct sound when reading?
I'm assuming it has something to do with accent marks and/or letter grouping of placement within words, but I'm not 100% sure on anything at this point.
It's /v/ or /f/ when following a vowel except ‘ο’ (/v/ before voiced consonants—like β, δ, γ, ζ, ν, μ, λ, ρ—or vowels and /f/ before unvoiced consonants—like π, τ, κ, φ, θ, χ, σ); ‘ου’ is pronounced /u/ (i.e., close to English long ‘oo’); it's /i/ (i.e., close to English long ‘e’) in all other cases (that is, after a consonant or a the beginning of a word, or when it carries a dieresis, ‘ϋ’).
Conversely, the spelling of a Greek word cannot be inferred from pronunciation alone (except for those sounds that have only one spelling, like ‘τσ’). If you hear an ‘ι’ sound, there's no way of knowing whether it is spelt ‘υ’, ‘ι’, ‘οι’ or ‘ει’ (just like in English there's no way of knowing whether /liːd/ is supposed to be spelt ‘leed’, ‘lead’, ‘lied’, ‘lede’ or any other number of possible spellings just from the pronunciation).
Both. It's commonly ‘prenasalised’—that is, having a very short ‘n’ sound—, but it varies a lot from speaker to speaker and it can range from a fully nasalised /anˈdio/ (an-DEE-oh) to no nasalisation at all: /aˈdio/ (ah-DEE-oh), most common in fast speech. Basically, the inconsistencies are baked into the language (but then, think of how differently an American and a RP English speaker might pronounce words like ‘clerk’, ‘corn’, ‘paws’ or ‘parse’).
Below your comment there is one with links. One of them will show you what the Greek letters, look like, how they are pronounced, where to find them on the keyboard...and much more information.
In this case .... the ντ gets a sound close to d but not completely.
You will also see a link to listen to native Greek speakers.
They don't exactly come from ‘νύχτα’, but they all come from the same common ancestor: Proto-Indo-European ‘nókʷts’.
That word gave us Proto-Germanic ‘nahts’ (→ EN ‘night’; DE ‘Nacht’; IS ‘nótt’), Ancient Greek ‘νύξ, νυκτός’ ( → ‘νύχτα’), Latin ‘nox, noctis’ (→ ES ‘noche’, PT ‘noite’, IT ‘notte’, FR ‘nuite’, RO ‘noapte’) and Proto-Slavic ‘noktь’ (→ RU ‘ночь’, UK ‘ніч’, PL ‘noc’).
All of the resulting words in modern languages are basically (more or less distant) cousins, having all had a common great-great-(...)-great-grandmother in Proto-Indo-European.
Well, unfortunately, the same way that you know how to put a K in ‘know’ or which letters to use in ‘hate’, ‘hay’, ‘prey’, ‘aid’, ‘neigh’, ‘filet’ even though they all have the same vowel sound: you learn that by heart.
It can help you remembering if you can identify an English cognate (generally inherited from ancient Greek through Latin): ‘y’ points to ‘υ’, ‘i’ to ‘ι’, ‘e’ to ‘η’ and ‘ei’ to ‘ει’; although the method is not foolproof because it only applies to a minority of words and sometimes the Greek or English words have changed their spelling over time so that they don't match up anymore.
So yeah, it will take time, and some times you'll have to check a dictionary to be sure, but you'll get there! (I mean, my native language is Italian, where there's very little irregularity in spelling, and yet look at me writing this whole paragraph without checking a spelling dictionary even once! If I could do it, you certainly can too!) :-)
If you are trying to write the Greek sentences using English letters I'm afraid it won't work. For Greek you need the Greek alphabet.
How to get the Greek keyboard and other useful links:
THE GREEK ALPHABET https://www.duolingo.com/comment/22424028 HOW TO GET THE GREEK KEYBOARD These links will not only show you how to get the Greek keyboard but also how to find the Greek letters on it, how to add accents etc.
And here is another to help you navigate Duolingo
FAQ - General Questions, Bugs & Reports https://www.duolingo.com/comment/23799672
Some simple hints to get you started:
Always read the comments before posting. Read the Tips & notes, on the first page of each lesson you’ll see an image of a light bulb. Click on that. 3. Read the drop down hints. Pass your cursor over a word and a list of words will appear. The top word/phrase is usually the best choice.
These are the official Duolingo guidelines which you should read.c.
If you have questions just ask.
The fact that two expressions share words in a language doesn't mean they have to be similar in all languages. The Greek for ‘good night’ actually does use ‘good’ (‘καλός’: ‘good, nice, pleasant’, that's what the ‘καλη’ in ‘καληνύχτα’ is), but ‘αντίο’ (‘goodbye’) comes from a completely different source—specifically the Italian ‘addio’ from ‘a dio’, literally ‘(I commend you) to god’, related to French ‘adieu’ and Spanish ‘adiós’. Incidentally, ‘goodbye’ actually has more in common etymologically with ‘αντίο’ than with ‘good night’: it is a contraction of ‘god be (with you)!’, so the ‘good-’ in ‘goodbye’ isn't really ‘good’ at all.
That would be really hard to establish as there are millions of people speaking Greek and from what I hear around me in daily life in Greece "αντίο" is alive and well. But no fears there is also "γεια σου" or "γεια σας"...."gia sou" for singular and friends and "gia sas" for plural and formal this is used for both "hello" and "goodbye" so it's a good one to know.
No, 'goodbye' itself is the same whoever says it. Other pleasantries are what you'd also encounter in English, from 'thank you for having us' to 'drive safe' to (usually your grandma sending you off with) 'may God be with you' etc.
(It's interesting that you mention this, I started Korean a few weeks ago and realised it has different goodbye versions depending on who's staying/leaving. Otherwise I would not have understood your question. :)