There's no such thing as a "route taxi" or a "share taxi" in English! A маршрутка is a minibus that functions as public transport. In English, it would simply be called a bus, regardless of its size. It's NOT a taxi at all, because you can't ask it to go to where you want it to go. You have to take the bus that goes your way and pay the same fee as all other passengers.
My question relates more specifically to "на" or "у/в". I'm already some ways into this course, but one of the things that still confounds me at this point is when to use "на" an when to use "у/в".
It seems that на is used for things that are generally referred to as "the..." like "the station", in this case "the stop", or things that you don't usually need to specify anything in particular (like the police station or the stadium for example). But when you are at or go to "the school", в/у are used. So to me at least, it's not clear at all when it is necessary to use "на", and i've just been memorizing up to this point which places need this word.
I believe the similar issue with prepositions we have in almost every language (and English is a good example). I mean, you never know what the preposition should be. There are no rules, you have to memorize all the cases. The things you mentioned are: на зупинці, у поліцейському відділі, на стадіоні. People in Ukraine buy food "у магазині і на базарі". There is no any logic, bear with it.