Not sure if this is a correct explanation for why your sentence was incorrect, but I believe in this sentence we are supposed to be talking about past experiences.
In English when we want to talk about past experiences (without a specific date) we used the present perfect. But in Portuguese they use the past simple for past experiences- most of the time past simple in English would not be correct in many contexts. e.g Have you already seen this film? - Você ja viu este filme? In this case 'Did you already see this film' would not be correct English because we are talking about an experience.
Within American English the rules might be the same for these tenses, but I was comparing American to British. In American English you can say things like.. 'I did it already!'. This is just not possible in British, and would be considered incorrect. Only the present perfect is accepted for this type of situation. That is how I meant when I said 'different' (different from British).
You are correct. There are some exceptions to present perfect in AmE. We often use the simple past with adverbs "already", "yet", and "just." We can also use the simple past when referring to a time of the day that is acknowledged to be in the past. Standard AmE: "I already did it."
"What did you have for breakfast today?"
The word "have" is part of the present perfect tense in English:
Present: I am in Brazil. = Estou no Brasil.
Past: I was in Brazil. = Eu estava no Brasil.
Present Perfect: I have been in Brazil. = Estive no Brasil.
Nota Bem: The English present perfect has the same structure as the Portuguese pretérito perfeito (composto), but the two tenses don't translate eachother.
Pretérito perfeito: Tenho chegado cedo = I have been arriving early.
Present perfect: I have arrived early. = Cheguei cedo.