Translation:The old cemetery is behind the church.
The short answer: no.
The long answer: It seems in old usage, the choice depended on if it is next to a church or not. I don't know how important it used to be in the past, but most native English speakers today do not care or notice the difference at all. So only if you cared to be exactly 100% formally correct (for ceremonial or important purposes) there is a real difference.
In Australia we use cemetery and more recently 'Memorial Park'. You will find many differences in the names of common things depending on the English region you are visiting... shop/store, pavement/sidewalk, autumn/fall, as well as different spellings for words cheque/check, neighbour/neighbor.