"Ο άντρας τρώει ένα μήλο."
Translation:The man eats an apple.
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For English "S", it's easy: use ς at the ends of words and σ everywhere else (beginning or middle).
For English "O", there's no way to know whether ο or ω is appropriate in Greek, unless you know whether the word used to be pronounced with a long or a short vowel 2500 years ago -- it's like English "ee" versus "ea", which used to be pronounced differently and were therefore written differently but are now pronounced the same and you just have to learn that it's "treat" but "tweet" etc.
Same story with η ι υ οι ει.
One small ray of hope: the above is true for word roots, but endings are more predictable. For example, the noun ending "-os" is -ος while the adverb ending "-os" is -ως; the passive ending "-ete" is -εται while the "you all" ending in the indicative active is -ετε; and so on.
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Can you explain about the different of ο and ω ?
In Modern Greek, the pronunciation is completely identical; the spelling reflects what used to be distinct sounds in Ancient Greek -- kind of like how the distinct spellings ee and ea reflect what used to be distinct sounds in Old English, but today meet and meat sound identical (for almost all speakers).
So Greek children today have to learn by heart which spelling to use just like English children do.
σ ς are purely positional variants: ς comes at the end of a word, σ everywhere else (beginning or middle). They're the same letter.
Quick question here: All these verb endings (-ω, -εις , -ει, etc) are used for all of the verbs in Greek (and then auxiliaries are used, like in English)? Or are they only like that in the present tense? Or are there irregular verbs in the present that wouldn't follow that pattern? You know, Greek has been very difficult for me, but I think I'm starting to get the hangs of some things. Not sure about verbs, though.
And I have another question: "ένα" here is in the accusative, right? Is "μήλο" a masculine or neuter word?
Sorry for the questions. I'm really into this lol
First of all don't try to equate what one language does with another language does. You will only get confused.
Yes, Greek uses endings which show the person (-ω, -εις, -ει, etc) (I, you, he.....etc) Yes, these are the present tense.
"used for all of the verbs in Greek"
No, of course, not...the verb changes according to the tense. As we say. "I go to school." or "I went to school." etc
"(and then auxiliaries are used, like in English)"
Sometimes yes, sometimes no. So, learn the Greek as Greek, not compared to English. It will make learning more productive and easier.
"ένα" is used in various ways see here: http://www.neurolingo.gr/online_tools/lexiscope.htm?term=%20%20%CE%AD%CE%BD%CE%B1
Ok, now stop worrying about all that.
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Here is a post about verb endings. It might be useful if you write down the conjugation tables on a piece of paper, so that you could often check it until you learn the verb endings. -> https://forum.duolingo.com/comment/52672715
"Ένα μήλο" is in accusative case. It's a neuter noun.
No. Only τρώει, ευχαριστώ, εγώ are correct.
ω ο have the same pronunciation, ε αι have the same pronunciation, and η υ ι οι ει υι have the same pronunciation, and you basically have to learn the correct spelling for a given word. A bit like "meet, meat, mete" in English.
There are few rules, and sometimes multiple spellings are possible (e.g. βρόμικο, βρώμικο).
With endings, it's a bit easier, e.g. the verbal ending for "εγώ" is spelled with omega, not omicron, and the verb endings -εται and -ετε are also distinct (one is third person singular passive voice, the other second person plural active voice).
ο, η, το are the Greek definite article, corresponding to English "the".
Roughly speaking, the definite article in both languages is used when you are speaking about something that is already known to the listener - often because you have spoken about it before.
The indefinite article ("a, an" in English) is used (roughly speaking) when you are speaking about something new.
For example: "Yesterday, I saw a man. The man was selling balloons."
In the first sentence, he is "a man" because he is new information; in the second, he is "the man" because the listener already knows which man you are talking about.
The use of definite and indefinite articles is a bit more complicated than that, and not quite the same in English as in Greek.