Does Russian have many irregularities like Dutch? Or does it follow by the rules. I want to learn this language, but if it has too many irregularities I don't know if I'll be able to, since it has so many cases and so many of such things, it will be extremely difficult to add on many irregularities. Thanks in advance
ps: If there are any, are they very abundant? Is it like in Dutch: Ik ga maar eens slapen, "I think I'm going to sleep", but literally it's "I go but once to sleep"?
English has way more irregularities than either language, and you clearly learned it. I'm a native speaker of Russian, so I can't say how hard it is, but according to other learners I have met and taught, it was a piece of cake.
Can you give some examples of typical phrases literally translated into English? Like: "I've had enough" or "Can I just go now?"
I've had enough: "Ну всё, хватит!" (literally: Now all, enough!) Can I just go now?: "Можно мне уйти?" (literally: Can I leave?) I don't see too many irregularities. Are you asking for metaphors or similes?
Metaphors, typical sayings that don't make sense in other languages. Like "It was lit" or "the party's poppin" you know? Like words that are used completely differently than their literal definition.
Yes there are many idioms in Russian, just like in any other language. The one that comes to mind is the verb "to cheer for" (like for a team) is "болеть", which is also the verb for "to be sick". There are hundreds of more examples, but I hope that one that gives you an idea.
I have another question, how does conjugation work? I know there are 2, but what does that mean? Like do you know which group a word belongs to right away by looking at it? Is it random? Also, is it just for present tense? or all tenses. And are they completely different conjugations?
6 cases for conjugation, it's really no big deal. Yes, there is conjugation for tenses, but those are easy too. Important: the adjectives are inflected, which is probably the hardest part of Russian grammar to be honest (in my humble opinion). It sounds really bad if you use the wrong endings, kind of like how in English if someone uses the wrong articles we cringe. Inflections are easy to learn but difficult to master, even for me.
There are three types of noun inflection and two types of verb conjugation. There are some exceptions, but they are nothing compared to the mass of strong verbs in Germanic languages. The area where you will find many irregularities is spelling as vowels in the words mostly aren't spelled as they are pronounced. Another difficulty is a large arsenal of word building morphemes which don't suit to every word and every context, so it requires a certain experience and feeling of the language to master the right use of them.