Genitive personal pronouns vs possessive adjectives?
There are genitive forms of personal pronouns, and there are possessive adjectives.
Is the difference between "мій" (m sing. nom., мій) and "мене" (gen. я) like the difference between "my" and "mine"?
When do or can you use the genitive personal pronouns, outside of constructions like У genitive (є+nominative) / (немає+genitive)?
Do genitive forms of non-pronouns act the around same way as "NOUN+'s" does in English, as in "it is NOUN's" and "it is NOUN's OBJECT"?
First of all, in the мене, тебе, його, її, нас, вас, їх are Accusative and мене, тебе, нього, неї, нас, вас, них are genitive.
- "Мій" - translates to, my or mine
- "Мене" - translates to, me/I (Acc) or of me
You can use genitive pronouns in the following situations:
- Time phrases about when something takes place.
Якого числа ми будемо відвідати? - On which date are we going to visit?
- Descriptions of size, colour, format, etc.
Синього кольору - Blue in colour
- To show the object in a negative statement
Я не маю кота - I don't have a cat
- With numbers 5-20, 25-30, 35-40, etc.
Мій учитель навчає тридцять студентів - My teacher teaches 30 students
- With certain prepositions: без, біля, близько, від, для, до, з, крім, після (note that with з it is only used in the genitive when it means from)
Yes, the genitive is used like the possessive in English.
Here is a nice summary of how to form the genitive I found online;
Form of the genitive
Whilst most masculine nouns in the genitive end in а or я, there are certain categories of nouns (e.g. abstract concepts, weights and measures, mass nous, locations and institutions, emotions and states of mind, natural phenomena etc.) which mostly have an ending in у or ю, e.g. університет – університету, дощ – дощу, ідеал – ідеалу etc.
In some nouns a change in genitive ending also denotes a change of meaning, e.g. рака – (of a) lobster, раку – (of) cancer, соняшника – (of) sunflower, соняшнику – (of) sunflower seed.
For feminine nouns whose stem ends in two or more consonants, e.g. журналістка, скринька, читальня etc., an extra vowel (о or е) is added before the final consonant, e.g. журналісток, скриньок, читалень etc. This is to facilitate pronunciation – the genitive plural, with its zero ending, would be almost impossible to pronounce otherwise! This type of vowel is known as "epenthetic" (meaning "inserted").
Some neuter nouns with stems ending in more than one consonant also have an epenthetic е or о, e.g. вікно – вікон, ядро – ядер.