Russian: Adjectives Following Numbers
I am completely baffled by what happens in Russian when adjectives follow numbers. (I do not mean this is as in when numbers become adjectives e.g. 'with five books', but instead 'with five red books'.)
I would like to know what happens when adjectives follow numbers in different cases, with nouns of different genders and, in the instance of masculine nouns (as far as my current knowledge stretches), being animate or inanimate. This would mean following the number 1, 2/3/4 and 5+.
The internet has been of some use, but I have found no definite tables or anything which would give me a concrete answer. If such a thing exists, I would be more than grateful to be pointed in that direction.
Just to illustrate what I mean... Which case/number would the adjectives take when saying: One happy man. I see one happy man. One green park. I see one green park. I give an apple to one happy man.
etc... Many thanks!
Hi! I will try to explain. It is really complex situation since you need need to understand genders, plural/singular nouns and all the 6 cases of Russian grammar (Nominative, Accusative, Genitive, Dative, Instrumental, Prepositional). An article that may help you http://www.russianlessons.net/grammar/adjectives.php Questions that will help you understand which case to choose http://www.russianlessons.net/vocabulary/question_words.php
Now to your examples^ "with five books" - "с пятью книгами". Question: with What? - с Чем? This question used in the Instrumental case. Answer: with BOOKS - since it is in the Instrumental case for feminine plural you need to chage the ending of the word КНИГА (feminine singular) to "-ами" с КНИГАМИ "with five RED books" - "с пятью КРАСНЫМИ книгами" Question: with What? - с Чем? Answer: with BOOKS - с КНИГАМИ. In Russian adjective is always depends on the noun. So if our noun is in the Instrumental case when our adjective red - красный will be in Instrumental case and change the ending according to the case and become КРАСНЫМИ.
Next One happy man - Один счастливый мужчина. Who? - MAN This question used in the Nominative Case, "man" is masculine singular so we use ending "-a" МУЖЧИНА. I see one happy man - Я вижу счастливого мужчину. Who? - I am (Кто?- Я.) I see Whom? (Я вижу Кого?) this question used in the Accusative Case so the ending will be "-y" MУЖЧИНУ and the adjective "happy"-"счастливый" will chage accordingly to the rule to СЧАСТЛИВОГО.
Next One green park - Один зеленый парк. What? - PARK - парк Nominative case for masculine singular inanimate. Green will have the same case so the ending will be "-ый" ЗЕЛЕНЫЙ. I see one green park - Я вижу один зеленый парк. Who? - I am (Кто?- Я.) I see What? (Я вижу Что?) Accusative Case. If the noun in inanimate, there is no change so it stays as ЗЕЛЕНЫЙ ПАРК
Next I give an apple to one happy man - Я даю яблоко одному счастливому мужчине. Who? - I am. I give an apple To Whom? - Я даю яблоко Кому? this question is used in the Dative Case so the word "мужчина" will change an ending to the "-e" МУЖЧИНЕ and adjective happy -"счастливый" (masculine singular) will have "-ому" ending - СЧАСТЛИВОМУ. I hope it will help you.
Thank you so much for your answer! I will study it in detail. However, I was wondering how the rules go with using the numbers 2/3/4. I am pretty sure that I have written "two happy girls" and found that the ending was -ые. So how would this work for 2/3/4 (in all cases, if possible)?
Thank you ever so much.
You are welcome,MissEngland!
In your example Cases dont affect the ending, but numbers do. There is a pattern in using ending according to numbers.
One happy girl - Одна счастливая девочка - АЯ, singular
Оn number 2 ending changes in the noun to the -И and in the adjective to - ЫЕ
Two happy girls - Две счастливые девочки -ЫЕ, - И
Three happy girls - Три счастливые девочки -ЫЕ
Four happy girls - Четыре счастливые девочки - ЫЕ
Оn number 5 ending changes in the noun to - ЕК and in the adjective to the - ЫХ.
Five happy girls - Пять счастливых девочек - ЫХ, - ЕК
Six happy girls - Шесть счастливых девочек - ЫХ
Seven happy girls - Семь счастливых девочек - ЫХ Eight happy girls - Восемь счастливых девочек - ЫХ Nine happy girls - Девять счастливых девочек - ЫХ Ten happy girls - Десять счастливых девочек - ЫХ Eleven happy girls - Одиннадцать счастливых девочек - ЫХ
And the ending -ЫХ goes on till number 20. But changes on number 21.
Twenty one happy girls - Двадцать одна счастливая девочка - АЯ, -А
The ending is the same as in One happy girl.
For 22,23,24 is the same as 2,3,4. - ЫЕ, - И
And it again changes on 25, as with 5 -ЫХ, -ЕК. And goes till 31 there pattern repit itself.
One tasty pie - Один вкусный пирог - ЫЙ
Оn number 2 ending changes in the noun to the - А and in the adjective to - ЫХ
Two tasty pies - Два вкусных пирога - ЫХ Three tasty pies - Три вкусных пирога - ЫХ Four tasty pies - Четыре вкусных пирога - ЫХ
On number five number 5 ending changes in the noun to - ОВ and in the adjective stays the same - ЫХ.
Five tasty pies - Пять вкусных пирогов - ЫХ, - ОВ.
It goes till 20 and changes on 21. You use the same ending as in 1.For 22,23,24 is the same as 2,3,4. And it again changes on 25, as with 5
One big field - Одно большое поле. - ОЕ, -Е
Оn number 2 ending changes in the noun to the -Я and in the adjective to - ИХ
Two big fields - Два больших поля - ИХ, -Я
3,4 is the same
Оn number 5 ending changes in the noun to - ЕЙ and in the adjective and in the adjective stays the same - ЫХ.
Five big fields - Пять больших полей. -ЫХ, -ЕЙ
It goes till 20 and changes on 21. You use the same ending as in 1. For 22,23,24 is the same as 2,3,4. And it again changes on 25, as with 5
If you interested how this phrases changes according to Cases I can write it later.