How do you know what case to make "który"(or pronouns like it)

For example in this sentence from Calineczka:

otoczony wiankiem kwiatów, których łodyżki były zanurzone w wodzie

or sobie in: Calineczka pływała sobie po talerzu

I struggle with knowing the case for these non-personal pronouns. Like what decides the case of a word like ktory, nic, nikt, sie, jaki, etc

Thank you for any advice

October 19, 2016


At least sobie does not depend on case. It just points to the person/people that are both the maker and receiver of some kind of activity.

- Skasowałem samochód - I crashed a car.

  • Skasowałem sobie samochód - I crashed my car.
  • Skasowałem mi samochód - (Not used)
  • Skasowałeś sobie samochód - You crashed your car.
  • Skasowałeś mi samochód - You crashed my car.
  • Skasowałeś tobie samochód - (Not used)

As for the Których it has 'nice' declension:óry

So we have this two sentences: (1) otoczony wiankiem kwiatów (2)łodyżki były zanurzone w wodzie

also we have kwiatów łodyżki or łodyżki kwiatów - this is what binds these two sentences

Łodyżki - kogo? czego? - genitive, dopełniacz - kwiatów, so the który is also in genitive (plural) których

Suppose: otoczony wiankiem, którego łodyżki były zanurzone w wodzie

Here: the binding is: łodyżki wianka, again - genitive for masculine - którego The case of wianek (wiankiem) is determined by otoczony.

Next example: Ten facet, któremu jestem winny 20 PLN, już wyszedł. (The guy, who I owe 20 PLN, has walked out.) PLN = zł

Ten facet - just nominative.

jestem winny 20 PLN + komu?czemu? , dative, celownik -facetowi

który in dative (masculine) is któremu

October 19, 2016

siebie/sobie in your expamples does decline, - declension table- it is dative. (Literally it's not I broke my/your car, but "I broke you a car", or "I broke a car to myself"

Sobie is dative or locative If you do something for someone/to someone you use dative case, if someone does that for themself is is "sobie".

But in the example "pływała sobie" sobie is expressive word- it describes that something is done with ease or with pleasure, or alone/ independently

what decides the case of a word like ktory, nic, nikt, sie, jaki, etc

nikt- this is easy - try replacing it with any other masculine personal noun like chłopiec or człowiek - and use the same case-9remember that the verb has to be negated, but nikogo=accusative=genitive)

nic - do the same thing like with "nikt", but with neuter noun. use the form like the verb is not negated, but negate the verb.

który, jaki- use the same case as the noun it describes

się- there are verbs that always have się, or change the meaning with się - "się" doesn't change the case (like uśmiechać się= smile, stawać się= become)

-if się means "oneself" - think which case would it be with "ty".

October 19, 2016
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