Um, that's kind of the wrong way around.
The gender is part of the noun, and the article has no choice but to follow the gender of the noun.
So οδός is feminine and that is why you need the articles η, μία. So you need feminine articles because the word is feminine, rather than the word being feminine because you use feminine articles.
Some words can even have multiple genders, e.g. σύζυγος "spouse": ο σύζυγος is "the husband" and η σύζυγος is "the wife".